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  1. Inappropriate activation of T lymphocytes plays an important role in perinatal complications. However, data on T lymphocyte activation markers of preterm infants is scarce. We investigated the association betw...

    Authors: Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, Tivadar Tulassay and Barna Vásárhelyi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:19

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Humanized mouse models are an increasingly popular preclinical model to study the human immune response in a biological system. There are a variety of protocols to generate these mice, each differing in the st...

    Authors: Crystal Dykstra, Amanda J. Lee, Evan J. Lusty, Mira M. Shenouda, Mahsa Shafai, Fatemeh Vahedi, Marianne V. Chew, Stephen Collins and Ali A. Ashkar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:18

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Promiscuous T-cell epitopes that can be presented by multiple human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are prime targets for vaccine and immunotherapy development because they are effective in a high proportion of the ...

    Authors: Shufeng Wang, Ling Guo, Dong Liu, Wei Liu and Yuzhang Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:17

    Content type: Database

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  4. Serglycin proteoglycans are essential for maturation of secretory granules and for the correct granular storage of cationic proteases in hematopoietic cells, e.g. mast cells. However, little is known about the...

    Authors: Ananya Roy, Osama Sawesi, Ulrika Pettersson, Anders Dagälv, Lena Kjellén, Anna Lundén and Magnus Åbrink

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Previous evidence suggested that the differentiation of Lin-CD45RA-DC precursors were prior to plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) within ovarian cancer microenvironment. How...

    Authors: Xue-qian Qian, Li-li Chen, Qi Cheng, Yang Tian, Xiao-feng Luo and Xiao-yun Wan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:14

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in t...

    Authors: Ruth Forman, Michael Bramhall, Larisa Logunova, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M. Cruickshank and Kathryn J. Else

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:12

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Immunologists often measure several correlated immunological markers, such as concentrations of different cytokines produced by different immune cells and/or measured under different conditions, to draw insigh...

    Authors: Bernd Genser, Joachim E. Fischer, Camila A. Figueiredo, Neuza Alcântara-Neves, Mauricio L. Barreto, Philip J. Cooper, Leila D. Amorim, Marcus D. Saemann, Thomas Weichhart and Laura C. Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:11

    Content type: Methodology article

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  8. In genetically modified (GM) crops there is a risk that the inserted genes may introduce new allergens and/or adjuvants into the food and feed chain. The MON810 maize, expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab toxin,...

    Authors: Monica Andreassen, Thomas Bøhn, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark, Johanna Bodin, Terje Traavik, Martinus Løvik and Unni Cecilie Nygaard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:10

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors used to control innate immune responses such as proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. Trem genes be...

    Authors: Jun Kasamatsu, Mengyao Deng, Masahiro Azuma, Kenji Funami, Hiroaki Shime, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Masanori Kasahara and Tsukasa Seya

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:9

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to mo...

    Authors: Julia A. Najera, Eduardo A. Bustamante, Nikki Bortell, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Timothy Ravasi and Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:7

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is a common and essential practice in conducting research. There are different reports in the literature as to whether cryopreserved PBMCs need to...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Norma Diaz, Joseph Adelsberger, Xueyuan Zhou, Randy Stevens, Adam Rupert, Julia A. Metcalf, Mike Baseler, Christine Barbon, Tomozumi Imamichi, Richard Lempicki and Louis M. Cosentino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:6

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Recent evidence indicates that in addition to the T-cell receptor, microclustering is an important mechanism for the activation of the B-cell receptor and the mast cell Fcε-receptor. In macrophages and neutrop...

    Authors: Jia Lin, Svetlana Kurilova, Brandon L. Scott, Elizabeth Bosworth, Bradley E. Iverson, Elizabeth M. Bailey and Adam D. Hoppe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:5

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to exp...

    Authors: Lindsey Russell, Gordon Broderick, Renee Taylor, Henrique Fernandes, Jeanna Harvey, Zachary Barnes, AnneLiese Smylie, Fanny Collado, Elizabeth G. Balbin, Ben Z. Katz, Nancy G. Klimas and Mary Ann Fletcher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:3

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major causative bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, possesses a thick polysaccharide capsule. Host defense against this bacterium is mediate...

    Authors: Yukiko Akahori, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Masahiko Toyama, Ikumi Matsumoto, Anna Miyahara, Tong Zong, Keiko Ishii, Yuki Kinjo, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shinobu Saijo, Yoichiro Iwakura and Kazuyoshi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:1

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) or eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), or both, with asthma precede the onset of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) in half of all EGPA patients. It is not...

    Authors: Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Takahiro Tsuburai, Satoshi Sugano, Yoko Nakamura, Takuya Shimoda, Shunpei Tamama, Ken Adachi, Ayako Horita, Ikuo Saito and Hiroshi Saito

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:75

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells known to modulate the immune system and to promote hematopoiesis. These dual effects make MSCs attractive for use as cellular therapy in hemato...

    Authors: Elizabeth O. Stenger, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti and Jacques Galipeau

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:74

    Content type: Review

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  17. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected patients exhibit systemic inflammation, early onset of age-related diseases, and features of immunosenescence. The role of inflammation in the devel...

    Authors: Juliette Tavenier, Anne Langkilde, Thomas Huneck Haupt, Jens Henrik Henriksen, Frank Krieger Jensen, Janne Petersen and Ove Andersen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:72

    Content type: Research article

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  18. To initiate mucosal immune responses, antigens in the intestinal lumen must be transported into gut-associated lymphoid tissue through M cells. Recently, it has been increasingly recognized that receptor activ...

    Authors: Jeong-In Kim, Tae-Eun Park, Sushila Maharjan, Hui-Shan Li, Ho-Bin Lee, In-Seon Kim, Dachuan Piao, Jun-Yeong Lee, Chong-Su Cho, Jin-Duck Bok, Zhong-Shan Hong, Sang-Kee Kang and Yun-Jaie Choi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:71

    Content type: Research article

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  19. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for the development and function of neutrophils. miR-130a is highly expressed during early neutrophil development and regulates target proteins important for this process. miRN...

    Authors: Corinna Cavan Pedersen, Jan Christian Refsgaard, Ole Østergaard, Lars Juhl Jensen, Niels Henrik Helweg Heegaard, Niels Borregaard and Jack Bernard Cowland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:70

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis represent a complex interaction between the skin and infiltrating immune cells, resulting in damage to the skin barrier and increased inflamma...

    Authors: Pauline Muscat, Karessa Mercado, Kathryn Payne, Hardip Chahal and Graham Jones

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:69

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Galectin-3 is known to be a lectin that plays an important role in inflammatory processes, acting as pro-inflammatory mediator in activation and migration of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as in the phag...

    Authors: Camila Brand, Thayse Pinheiro da Costa, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Camila Maria Longo Machado, Leonardo Rodrigues Andrade, Roger Chammas, Felipe Leite de Oliveira and Márcia Cury El-Cheikh

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:68

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) modulates host immune response, mainly T cell responses for its own survival leading to disease or latent infection. The molecules and mech...

    Authors: Bhawna Sharma, Rajni Upadhyay, Bhavyata Dua, Naim Akhtar Khan, Vishwa Mohan Katoch, Bharat Bajaj and Beenu Joshi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:67

    Content type: Research article

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  23. CD1d is a widely expressed lipid antigen presenting molecule required for CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell development. Elevated CD1d expression is detected in CD5+ IL10-producing B cells, c...

    Authors: Victoria L. Palmer, Vincent K. Nganga, Mary E. Rothermund, Greg A. Perry and Patrick C. Swanson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) usually mount a modest T cell response against HBV epitopes. In order to determine immunogenic epitopes of HBV recognized by HBV-specific T cells, previo...

    Authors: Nanna-Sophie Brinck-Jensen, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Peter Derek Christian Leutscher, Christian Erikstrup and Eskild Petersen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:65

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with the massive infiltration of neutrophils. Although the initial infiltration of neutrophils is beneficial for killing bacteria, it is presume...

    Authors: Sumika Tokieda, Marie Komori, Toshifumi Ishiguro, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kazuhiko Takahara and Kayo Inaba

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:64

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Requisites for an efficacious tuberculosis (TB) vaccine are a minimal genomic diversity among infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for the selected antigen, and the capability to induce robust T-cell res...

    Authors: Marie-Cécile Mortier, Erik Jongert, Pascal Mettens and Jean-Louis Ruelle

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:63

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells have been implicated in lung inflammation in humans and also shown to be a key cell type in inducing allergic lung inflammation in mouse models. iNKT cells differentiate...

    Authors: Rosa Berga-Bolaños, Archna Sharma, Farrah C. Steinke, Kalyani Pyaram, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Dil A. Sultana, Jessie X. Fang, Cheong-Hee Chang, Hai-Hui Xue, Nicola M. Heller and Jyoti Misra Sen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:62

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Recent studies have focused on the significant cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and gamma-delta (γδ) T cells in tumor cells. Nevertheless, the therapeutic feature...

    Authors: Chao Niu, Haofan Jin, Min Li, Jianting Xu, Dongsheng Xu, Jifan Hu, Hua He, Wei Li and Jiuwei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:61

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Several inflammatory cytokines play a key part in the induction of osteoporosis. Until now, involvement of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-31 (IL-31) in osteoporosis hadn’t yet been studied. IL-31 is a proinflamm...

    Authors: Lia Ginaldi, Massimo De Martinis, Fedra Ciccarelli, Salvatore Saitta, Selene Imbesi, Carmen Mannucci and Sebastiano Gangemi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:60

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The chronic course of pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to lung dysfunction due to fibrosis, in which the signalling pathways TGF-β/Smad and VEGF-A may play a key role.

    Authors: Wojciech J. Piotrowski, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Paweł Górski, Adam Antczak, Witold Górski, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Ewa Nawrot, Karolina H. Czarnecka, Zofia Kurmanowska and Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:58

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a clinically heterogeneous chronic condition that affects many veterans of the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War. One of the most prevalent and debilitating symptoms of GWI is abnormal fatig...

    Authors: Luke Parkitny, Stephanie Middleton, Katharine Baker and Jarred Younger

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:57

    Content type: Research article

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  32. A significant barrier to organ transplantation is the cellular rejection that occurs and mediated by antibodies, T cells, and innate immune cells. This study was aimed to determine the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T...

    Authors: Liang Ma, Huimao Zhang, Kebang Hu, Guoyue Lv, Yaowen Fu, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Pingwei Zhao and Yanfang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:56

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells, followed by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and the subsequent extensive impairment of ...

    Authors: Ahmad A. Al Ghamdi, Gamal Badr, Wael N. Hozzein, Ahmed Allam, Noori S. Al-Waili, Mohammed A. Al-Wadaan and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:54

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Swainsonine can cause serious disorders in reproduction of livestock, affecting both corpora lutea and reproductive hormone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of swainsonine about the...

    Authors: Yanchun Hu, Lei Wu, Chengmin Wang, Jing Luo, Fei Liao, Hui Tan and Hongxuan He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:53

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) are critical in maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. Quantitative or phenotypic alterations and functional impairment of Tregs have been associated with the developm...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Ângelo Augusto, Cremildo Maueia, Nédio Mabunda, Eduardo Samo Gudo Jr, Nilesh Bhatt, Ilesh Jani and Wilson Savino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:52

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at ectopic locations. Although the prevalence of endometriosis is as high as 35 %–50 %, its pathogenesis remains controversial. An incr...

    Authors: Mary Lourdes Montenegro, Rui Alberto Ferriani and Per H. Basse

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:51

    Content type: Research article

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  37. As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection. However, it is not well known whether in utero exposure to the virus...

    Authors: Herbert Longwe, Kamija S. Phiri, Nyanyiwe M. Mbeye, Thandile Gondwe, Kondwani C. Jambo and Wilson L. Mandala

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:50

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The changes in T-cell morphology during immunological synapse (IS) formation are essential for T-cell activation. Previous researches have shown that T cell changed from spherical to elongated and/or flattened...

    Authors: Wei Lin, Yuanzhen Suo, Yuting Deng, Zhichao Fan, Yijie Zheng, Xunbin Wei and Yiwei Chu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:49

    Content type: Research article

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  39. High quality genetic material is an essential pre-requisite when analyzing gene expression using microarray technology. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are frequently used for genomic analyses, but s...

    Authors: Christopher P. Corkum, Danielle P. Ings, Christopher Burgess, Sylwia Karwowska, Werner Kroll and Tomasz I. Michalak

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:48

    Content type: Methodology

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  40. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that shares many activities with other pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary glomerulonephritis (GN). This study assesses the influence of immunosuppr...

    Authors: Rafał Zwiech

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:47

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Comparative analysis of genome-wide expression profiles are increasingly being used to study virus-specific host interactions. In order to gain mechanistic insights, gene expression profiles can be combined wi...

    Authors: Juilee Thakar, Boris M. Hartmann, Nada Marjanovic, Stuart C. Sealfon and Steven H. Kleinstein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:46

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth diseases. Modulation of host responses is an important strategy used by helminth parasites ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Hejun Zhou, Yujuan Shen, Yanjuan Wang, Weiping Wu, Haipeng Liu, Zhongying Yuan, Yuxin Xu, Yuan Hu and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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