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  1. Content type: Review

    The concept of the immunogenicity of an antigen is frequently encountered in the context of vaccine development, an area of intense interest currently due to the emergence or re-emergence of infectious pathoge...

    Authors: Siddhartha Mahanty, Antoine Prigent and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:31

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, which is characterized by autoantibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As one of the main water regu...

    Authors: Martin Juenemann, Tobias Braun, Simone Doenges, Max Nedelmann, Clemens Mueller, Georg Bachmann, Pratibha Singh, Franz Blaes, Tibo Gerriets and Marlene Tschernatsch

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:30

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Scavenger receptor A (SRA) is expressed predominantly in phagocytic cells playing an essential role in the host immune defense against invading microorganisms. Our previous study reported the presence of SRA i...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Zuxiong Huang, Di Ma, Liqian Chen, Qintao Lai, Xuan Huang, Jia Zhou, Xiaoyong Zhang, Qiang Ma, Zhengliang Chen and Daming Zuo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:29

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which dysregulated immune cells attack myelin in the central nervous system (CNS), leading to irreversible neuronal degeneration. Our previous studies have d...

    Authors: Enyu Rao, Puja Singh, Yan Li, Yuwen Zhang, Young-In Chi, Jill Suttles and Bing Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:28

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  5. Content type: Review

    Blood platelets are first aimed at ensuring primary hemostasis. Beyond this role, they have been acknowledged as having functions in the maintenance of the vascular arborescence and, more recently, as being al...

    Authors: Adrien Chabert, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Bruno Pozzetto, Fabrice Cognasse, Mirta Schattner, Ricardo M Gomez and Olivier Garraud

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:26

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  6. Content type: Research article

    HIV-infected long-term non-progressor (LTNP) subjects can prevent viral replication and may harbor useful information for the development of both antibody and active vaccination treatments. In this study we us...

    Authors: Yuxia Hao, Ge Bai, Junping Wang, Longfeng Zhao, Kyle Sutherland, Jianfeng Cai and Chuanhai Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:25

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, is induced by immunization of mice with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) injections, and after 9 days, mice d...

    Authors: Patricia J McLaughlin, Daniel P McHugh, Marcus J Magister and Ian S Zagon

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:24

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Monocytes and macrophages produce interleukin (IL)-10, an immunoregulatory cytokine and a potent therapeutic tool for immune disorders. Augmentation of IL-10 production with a concomitant reduction of proinfla...

    Authors: Masanori Inui, Kino Tazawa, Yoshiro Kishi and Toshiyuki Takai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:20

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, an immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TGF-β e...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Imad Lahdou, Jakob Ettinger, Mojdeh Heidary Navid, Volker Daniel, Martin Zeier, Jörg Hofmann, Gerhard Opelz and Paul Schnitzler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:19

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  10. Content type: Review

    Vaccination has been a major advance for health care, allowing eradication or reduction of incidence and mortality of various infectious diseases. However, there are major pathogens, such as Human Immunodefici...

    Authors: Mireille Centlivre and Béhazine Combadière

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:18

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  11. Content type: Review

    Malaria remains a major worldwide public health problem with ~207 million cases and ~627,000 deaths per year, mainly affecting children under five years of age in Africa. Recent efforts at elaborating a geneti...

    Authors: Audrey V Grant, Christian Roussilhon, Richard Paul and Anavaj Sakuntabhai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:14

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  12. Content type: Research article

    All-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) has been proven to skew Regulatory T cell-T helper 17 cell (Treg-Th17) balance toward Treg in vitro, favoring graft acceptance. However, its in vivo effect after solid organ transpl...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wentao Wang, Jianjiang Xu, Suqian Wu and Qihua Le

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:17

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Necrosis of alveolar macrophages following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Our previous study demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin s...

    Authors: Xiaoling Wu, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Yong Li, Chunyan Ma, Yujiong Wang and Xiaoming Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:16

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  14. Content type: Research article

    C-reactive protein (CRP) exerts prothrombotic effects through dissociating from pentameric CRP (pCRP) into modified or monomeric CRP (mCRP). However, although the high prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE...

    Authors: Peng-cheng Xu, Shan Lin, Xiao-wei Yang, Dong-mei Gu, Tie-kun Yan, Li Wei and Bao-li Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:10

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Polymorphisms in cytokine genes are known to influence cytokine levels, which may influence susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease. Differences in cytokine expression probably determine whet...

    Authors: Yi Hu, Linlin Wu, Dange Li, Qi Zhao, Weili Jiang and Biao Xu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:8

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies indicate a central role for the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) but the importance in the context of treatment outcome is unknown. We studied various cytokines, incl...

    Authors: Agneta Zickert, Petra Amoudruz, Yvonne Sundström, Johan Rönnelid, Vivianne Malmström and Iva Gunnarsson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:7

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Homeostatic B Cell-Attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) otherwise known as CXCL13 is constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and macrophages. It is the only known li...

    Authors: Ekaterina Klimatcheva, Tracy Pandina, Christine Reilly, Sebold Torno, Holm Bussler, Maria Scrivens, Alan Jonason, Crystal Mallow, Michael Doherty, Mark Paris, Ernest S Smith and Maurice Zauderer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:6

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Excessive and inappropriate immune responses are the hallmark of several autoimmune disorders, including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). A complex etiol...

    Authors: Jeremy S Schaefer, Taraq Attumi, Antone R Opekun, Bincy Abraham, Jason Hou, Harold Shelby, David Y Graham, Charles Streckfus and John R Klein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:5

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  19. Content type: Methodology article

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main allergen causing adverse reactions to hair dyes and a frequent cause of occupational-related skin sensitization among hairdressers and beauticians. The immunologic mecha...

    Authors: Valentina Bordignon, Francesca Palamara, Giorgia Altomonte, Isabella Sperduti, Mario Pietravalle, Claudia Cavallotti, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Antonio Cristaudo and Fabrizio Ensoli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:4

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Platelets are instrumental to primary haemostasis; in addition, as they are central to endothelium vascular repair, they play a role in physiological inflammation. Platelets have also been demonstrated to be k...

    Authors: Pauline Damien, Fabrice Cognasse, Marie-Ange Eyraud, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Bruno Pozzetto, Olivier Garraud and Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:3

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  21. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that immune dysfunction and the increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women with hyperandrogenia (HA) are caused by the reduced tolerogenic potential of den...

    Authors: Elena R Chernykh, Olga Yu Leplina, Marina A Tikhonova, Nataliya V Seledtsova, Tamara V Tyrinova, Nataliya A Khonina, Alexandr A Ostanin and Nataliya M Pasman

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:2

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  22. Content type: Research article

    We previously showed that the Vibrio cholerae ghost platform (VCG; empty V. cholerae cell envelopes) is an effective delivery system for vaccine antigens promoting the induction of substantial immunity in the abs...

    Authors: Francis O Eko, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik, Roshan Pais, Qing Pan, Daniel M N Okenu, Arieian Johnson, Chris Ibegbu, Cheng He, Qing He, Raedeen Russell, Carolyn M Black and Joseph U Igietseme

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:584

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  23. Content type: Research article

    TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), a receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, is upregulated in sepsis and seems to tune the inflammatory response. We explored the expression of T...

    Authors: Androniki Marioli, Marina Koupetori, Maria Raftogiannis, Maria Patrani, Nikolaos Antonakos, Maria Pavlaki, Georgios Adamis, Georgia Dougekou, Georgia Damoraki and Iraklis Tsangaris

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:585

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  24. Content type: Methodology article

    Highly purified nuclear protein is required when using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to study transcription factors, e.g. nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a major transcription factor that regulates bo...

    Authors: Yuqian Luo, Takeshi Hara, Yuko Ishido, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Masahiko Makino, Norihisa Ishii, Naoki Hiroi and Koichi Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:586

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol and saturated lipid-rich, nanometer sized membrane domains that are hypothesized to play an important role in compartmentalization and spatiotemporal regulation of cellular signalin...

    Authors: Daniel Schieffer, Sanya Naware, Walter Bakun and Anil K Bamezai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:58

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  26. Content type: Software

    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and frequency analysis is a powerful tool for studying the immune repertoire, immune responses and immune dysregulation in health and d...

    Authors: Michael J Moorhouse, David van Zessen, Hanna IJspeert, Saskia Hiltemann, Sebastian Horsman, Peter J van der Spek, Mirjam van der Burg and Andrew P Stubbs

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:59

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Near universal administration of vaccines mandates intense pharmacovigilance for vaccine safety and a stringently low tolerance for adverse events. Reports of autoimmune diseases (AID) following vaccination ha...

    Authors: Peter B McGarvey, Baris E Suzek, James N Baraniuk, Shruti Rao, Brian Conkright, Samir Lababidi, Andrea Sutherland, Richard Forshee and Subha Madhavan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:61

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Intracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the int...

    Authors: Tanja Buchacher, Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr, Klemens Vierlinger, Beate M Rüger, Gerold Stanek, Michael B Fischer and Viktoria Weber

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:60

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  29. Content type: Research article

    To understand the role of genetic factors on chromosome 1 in the regulation of spontaneous arthritis in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL_1RA), we previously used speed congenic breeding t...

    Authors: Nan Deng, Yan Jiao, Yanhong Cao, Xiaoyun Liu, Yonghui Ma, Karen A Hasty, David D Brand, John M Stuart and Weikuan Gu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:57

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in human atheroma. In vascular cells in vitro, Nur77 expression is induced by pro-inflammatory factors, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL).

    Authors: Liu-hua Hu, Ying Yu, Shu-xuan Jin, Peng Nie, Zhao-hua Cai, Ming-li Cui, Shi-qun Sun, Hua Xiao, Qin Shao, Ling-hong Shen and Ben He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:54

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Insufficient leukocyte recruitment may be one reason for the high incidence of life-threatening infections in preterm infants. Since the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a known leukocyte ...

    Authors: Kirsten Buschmann, Raphaela Tschada, Marie-Sophie Metzger, Natascha Braach, Navina Kuss, Hannes Hudalla, Johannes Poeschl and David Frommhold

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:53

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aureus) has been used as a model to study infections caused by a number of human pathogens. Studies of immunopathogenesis in hamster infection models are challenging becaus...

    Authors: Claudia M Espitia, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, E Yaneth Osorio, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark Band, Mandakini J Patel, Audrie A Medina, Michael Cappello, Andrew Pekosz and Peter C Melby

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:38

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The extracellular domains of cytokine receptors are released during inflammation, but little is known about the shedding of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether they can be used as diagnostic biomarkers.

    Authors: Jaap ten Oever, Matthijs Kox, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Khutso M Mothapo, Adriana Slavcovici, Tim L Jansen, Lieke Tweehuysen, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Peter M Schneeberger, Peter C Wever, Monique Stoffels, Anna Simon, Jos WM van der Meer, Melissa D Johnson, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Peter Pickkers…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:55

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In the immune system, the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) increase gradually during ageing. Through B cell development, the Ig heavy chain expression is modulated by a regulatory region at the 3’ of the co...

    Authors: Eliseo Serone, Cristina Daleno, Nicola Principi, Laura Porretti, Valentina Iacoacci, Cesare Gargioli, Andrea Magrini, Renato Massoud, Pietro D’Addabbo, Marco Cattalini, Vincenzo Giambra, Alessandro Plebani, Susanna Esposito and Domenico Frezza

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:45

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme degradation, is attracting growing attention from the scientific community. At physiological concentrations, CO plays a role as a signal messenger that regulates a num...

    Authors: Alexandre Chigaev, Yelena Smagley and Larry A Sklar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:52

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The naïve antibody repertoire is initially dependent upon the number of germline V(D)J genes and the ability of recombined heavy and light chains to pair. Individual VH and VL genes are not equally represented...

    Authors: Sean P Fitzsimmons, Antonina G Aydanian, Kathleen J Clark and Marjorie A Shapiro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:51

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Monocytes reportedly contribute to liver regeneration. Three subsets have been identified to date: classical, intermediate, non-classical monocytes. The intermediate population and a subtype expressing TIE2 (T...

    Authors: Dominic Schauer, Patrick Starlinger, Philipp Zajc, Lejla Alidzanovic, Thomas Maier, Elisabeth Buchberger, Lorand Pop, Birgit Gruenberger, Thomas Gruenberger and Christine Brostjan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:50

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Long-acting β2 adrenergic agonists (LABAs) are commonly used combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to treat asthmatic patients. Previous reports suggest that LABAs have an anti-inflammatory effect in bro...

    Authors: Go Kato, Koichiro Takahashi, Hiroki Tashiro, Keigo Kurata, Hideharu Shirai, Shinya Kimura and Shinichiro Hayashi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:39

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Muc...

    Authors: Mathieu Goupil, Vincent Cousineau-Côté, Francine Aumont, Serge Sénéchal, Louis Gaboury, Zaher Hanna, Paul Jolicoeur and Louis de Repentigny

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:49

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