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  1. Content type: Research article

    C-reactive protein (CRP) exerts prothrombotic effects through dissociating from pentameric CRP (pCRP) into modified or monomeric CRP (mCRP). However, although the high prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE...

    Authors: Peng-cheng Xu, Shan Lin, Xiao-wei Yang, Dong-mei Gu, Tie-kun Yan, Li Wei and Bao-li Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:10

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Polymorphisms in cytokine genes are known to influence cytokine levels, which may influence susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease. Differences in cytokine expression probably determine whet...

    Authors: Yi Hu, Linlin Wu, Dange Li, Qi Zhao, Weili Jiang and Biao Xu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:8

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Homeostatic B Cell-Attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) otherwise known as CXCL13 is constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and macrophages. It is the only known li...

    Authors: Ekaterina Klimatcheva, Tracy Pandina, Christine Reilly, Sebold Torno, Holm Bussler, Maria Scrivens, Alan Jonason, Crystal Mallow, Michael Doherty, Mark Paris, Ernest S Smith and Maurice Zauderer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:6

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies indicate a central role for the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) but the importance in the context of treatment outcome is unknown. We studied various cytokines, incl...

    Authors: Agneta Zickert, Petra Amoudruz, Yvonne Sundström, Johan Rönnelid, Vivianne Malmström and Iva Gunnarsson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:7

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Excessive and inappropriate immune responses are the hallmark of several autoimmune disorders, including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). A complex etiol...

    Authors: Jeremy S Schaefer, Taraq Attumi, Antone R Opekun, Bincy Abraham, Jason Hou, Harold Shelby, David Y Graham, Charles Streckfus and John R Klein

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:5

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main allergen causing adverse reactions to hair dyes and a frequent cause of occupational-related skin sensitization among hairdressers and beauticians. The immunologic mecha...

    Authors: Valentina Bordignon, Francesca Palamara, Giorgia Altomonte, Isabella Sperduti, Mario Pietravalle, Claudia Cavallotti, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Antonio Cristaudo and Fabrizio Ensoli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:4

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  7. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that immune dysfunction and the increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women with hyperandrogenia (HA) are caused by the reduced tolerogenic potential of den...

    Authors: Elena R Chernykh, Olga Yu Leplina, Marina A Tikhonova, Nataliya V Seledtsova, Tamara V Tyrinova, Nataliya A Khonina, Alexandr A Ostanin and Nataliya M Pasman

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:2

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Platelets are instrumental to primary haemostasis; in addition, as they are central to endothelium vascular repair, they play a role in physiological inflammation. Platelets have also been demonstrated to be k...

    Authors: Pauline Damien, Fabrice Cognasse, Marie-Ange Eyraud, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Bruno Pozzetto, Olivier Garraud and Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:3

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  9. Content type: Research article

    We previously showed that the Vibrio cholerae ghost platform (VCG; empty V. cholerae cell envelopes) is an effective delivery system for vaccine antigens promoting the induction of substantial immunity in the abs...

    Authors: Francis O Eko, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik, Roshan Pais, Qing Pan, Daniel M N Okenu, Arieian Johnson, Chris Ibegbu, Cheng He, Qing He, Raedeen Russell, Carolyn M Black and Joseph U Igietseme

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:584

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  10. Content type: Research article

    TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), a receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, is upregulated in sepsis and seems to tune the inflammatory response. We explored the expression of T...

    Authors: Androniki Marioli, Marina Koupetori, Maria Raftogiannis, Maria Patrani, Nikolaos Antonakos, Maria Pavlaki, Georgios Adamis, Georgia Dougekou, Georgia Damoraki and Iraklis Tsangaris

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:585

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  11. Content type: Methodology article

    Highly purified nuclear protein is required when using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to study transcription factors, e.g. nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a major transcription factor that regulates bo...

    Authors: Yuqian Luo, Takeshi Hara, Yuko Ishido, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Masahiko Makino, Norihisa Ishii, Naoki Hiroi and Koichi Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:586

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol and saturated lipid-rich, nanometer sized membrane domains that are hypothesized to play an important role in compartmentalization and spatiotemporal regulation of cellular signalin...

    Authors: Daniel Schieffer, Sanya Naware, Walter Bakun and Anil K Bamezai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:58

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  13. Content type: Software

    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and frequency analysis is a powerful tool for studying the immune repertoire, immune responses and immune dysregulation in health and d...

    Authors: Michael J Moorhouse, David van Zessen, Hanna IJspeert, Saskia Hiltemann, Sebastian Horsman, Peter J van der Spek, Mirjam van der Burg and Andrew P Stubbs

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:59

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Near universal administration of vaccines mandates intense pharmacovigilance for vaccine safety and a stringently low tolerance for adverse events. Reports of autoimmune diseases (AID) following vaccination ha...

    Authors: Peter B McGarvey, Baris E Suzek, James N Baraniuk, Shruti Rao, Brian Conkright, Samir Lababidi, Andrea Sutherland, Richard Forshee and Subha Madhavan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:61

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Intracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the int...

    Authors: Tanja Buchacher, Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr, Klemens Vierlinger, Beate M Rüger, Gerold Stanek, Michael B Fischer and Viktoria Weber

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:60

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  16. Content type: Research article

    To understand the role of genetic factors on chromosome 1 in the regulation of spontaneous arthritis in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL_1RA), we previously used speed congenic breeding t...

    Authors: Nan Deng, Yan Jiao, Yanhong Cao, Xiaoyun Liu, Yonghui Ma, Karen A Hasty, David D Brand, John M Stuart and Weikuan Gu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:57

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in human atheroma. In vascular cells in vitro, Nur77 expression is induced by pro-inflammatory factors, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL).

    Authors: Liu-hua Hu, Ying Yu, Shu-xuan Jin, Peng Nie, Zhao-hua Cai, Ming-li Cui, Shi-qun Sun, Hua Xiao, Qin Shao, Ling-hong Shen and Ben He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:54

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Insufficient leukocyte recruitment may be one reason for the high incidence of life-threatening infections in preterm infants. Since the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a known leukocyte ...

    Authors: Kirsten Buschmann, Raphaela Tschada, Marie-Sophie Metzger, Natascha Braach, Navina Kuss, Hannes Hudalla, Johannes Poeschl and David Frommhold

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:53

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aureus) has been used as a model to study infections caused by a number of human pathogens. Studies of immunopathogenesis in hamster infection models are challenging becaus...

    Authors: Claudia M Espitia, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, E Yaneth Osorio, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark Band, Mandakini J Patel, Audrie A Medina, Michael Cappello, Andrew Pekosz and Peter C Melby

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:38

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The extracellular domains of cytokine receptors are released during inflammation, but little is known about the shedding of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether they can be used as diagnostic biomarkers.

    Authors: Jaap ten Oever, Matthijs Kox, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Khutso M Mothapo, Adriana Slavcovici, Tim L Jansen, Lieke Tweehuysen, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Peter M Schneeberger, Peter C Wever, Monique Stoffels, Anna Simon, Jos WM van der Meer, Melissa D Johnson, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Peter Pickkers…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:55

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  21. Content type: Research article

    In the immune system, the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) increase gradually during ageing. Through B cell development, the Ig heavy chain expression is modulated by a regulatory region at the 3’ of the co...

    Authors: Eliseo Serone, Cristina Daleno, Nicola Principi, Laura Porretti, Valentina Iacoacci, Cesare Gargioli, Andrea Magrini, Renato Massoud, Pietro D’Addabbo, Marco Cattalini, Vincenzo Giambra, Alessandro Plebani, Susanna Esposito and Domenico Frezza

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:45

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme degradation, is attracting growing attention from the scientific community. At physiological concentrations, CO plays a role as a signal messenger that regulates a num...

    Authors: Alexandre Chigaev, Yelena Smagley and Larry A Sklar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:52

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The naïve antibody repertoire is initially dependent upon the number of germline V(D)J genes and the ability of recombined heavy and light chains to pair. Individual VH and VL genes are not equally represented...

    Authors: Sean P Fitzsimmons, Antonina G Aydanian, Kathleen J Clark and Marjorie A Shapiro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:51

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Long-acting β2 adrenergic agonists (LABAs) are commonly used combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to treat asthmatic patients. Previous reports suggest that LABAs have an anti-inflammatory effect in bro...

    Authors: Go Kato, Koichiro Takahashi, Hiroki Tashiro, Keigo Kurata, Hideharu Shirai, Shinya Kimura and Shinichiro Hayashi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:39

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Monocytes reportedly contribute to liver regeneration. Three subsets have been identified to date: classical, intermediate, non-classical monocytes. The intermediate population and a subtype expressing TIE2 (T...

    Authors: Dominic Schauer, Patrick Starlinger, Philipp Zajc, Lejla Alidzanovic, Thomas Maier, Elisabeth Buchberger, Lorand Pop, Birgit Gruenberger, Thomas Gruenberger and Christine Brostjan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:50

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Muc...

    Authors: Mathieu Goupil, Vincent Cousineau-Côté, Francine Aumont, Serge Sénéchal, Louis Gaboury, Zaher Hanna, Paul Jolicoeur and Louis de Repentigny

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:49

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The significance of a unique inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG, FcγRIIB (RIIB), in the prevention of spontaneous production of autoantibodies remains controversial, due mainly to the fact that the RIIB locus is adja...

    Authors: Yasuyoshi Kanari, Akiko Sugahara–Tobinai, Haruka Takahashi, Masanori Inui, Akira Nakamura, Sachiko Hirose and Toshiyuki Takai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:47

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Our informal observations suggested that some patients with acute sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) have subnormal serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. We evaluated 28 consecutive adults (18 men, 10 women) at AS...

    Authors: Luigi F Bertoli, Dennis G Pappas, J Clayborn Barton and James C Barton

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:43

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The application of vaccine adjuvants has been vigorously studied for a diverse range of diseases in order to improve immune responses and reduce toxicity. However, most adjuvants have limited uses in clinical ...

    Authors: Kyung Hee Noh, Yeong Min Park, Hyuk Soon Kim, Tae Heung Kang, Kwon-Ho Song, Young-Ho Lee, Yeongseon Byeon, Hat Nim Jeon, In Duk Jung, Byung Cheol Shin, Kyung-Mi Lee, Seung-Yong Seong, Hee Dong Han and Tae Woo Kim

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:48

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of antibody variable regions has emerged as a powerful tool in systems immunology by providing quantitative molecular information on polyclonal humoral immune responses. Reprod...

    Authors: Victor Greiff, Ulrike Menzel, Ulrike Haessler, Skylar C Cook, Simon Friedensohn, Tarik A Khan, Mark Pogson, Ina Hellmann and Sai T Reddy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:40

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Innate immunity and tissue proliferation play important roles in otitis media (OM), the most common disease of childhood. CJUN terminal kinase (JNK) is potentially involved in both processes.

    Authors: William Yao, Meredith Frie, Jeffrey Pan, Kwang Pak, Nicholas Webster, Stephen I Wasserman and Allen F Ryan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:46

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The spleen is thought to be central in regulating the immune system, a metabolic asset involved in endocrine function. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection leads to a mortality rate of up to 50%. However, th...

    Authors: Hai-Bo Chu, Ting-Guo Zhang, Jian-Hua Zhao, Feng-Guo Jian, Yong-Bo Xu, Tao Wang, Min Wang, Jin-Yuan Tang, Hong-Jie Sun, Kun Li, Wen-Jun Guo and Xiao-Ji Zhu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:42

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  33. Content type: Research article

    In former studies we showed in a rat model of renal transplantation that Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) prevent acute rejection in an independent way of their endowing in the graft. In this study we investiga...

    Authors: Marilena Gregorini, Francesca Bosio, Chiara Rocca, Valeria Corradetti, Teresa Valsania, Eleonora Francesca Pattonieri, Pasquale Esposito, Giulia Bedino, Chiara Collesi, Carmelo Libetta, Francesco Frassoni, Antonio Dal Canton and Teresa Rampino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:44

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the hos...

    Authors: Robert F Foronjy, Abdoulaye J Dabo, Neville Cummins and Patrick Geraghty

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:41

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and its derivative, everolimus, are potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by immunolog...

    Authors: Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Kai-Ting Chang, Chi-Chih Hung, Chang-Hung Kuo, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen, Chih-Hsing Hung and Sheng-Fung Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:37

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Granzyme B (GrzB) is a serine proteinase expressed by memory T cells and NK cells. Methods to measure GrzB protein usually involve intracellular (flow cytometry) and extracellular (ELISA and ELISpot) assays. C...

    Authors: Lin Lin, Jacob Couturier, Xiaoying Yu, Miguel A Medina, Claudia A Kozinetz and Dorothy E Lewis

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:36

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  37. Content type: Research article

    In vitro studies have shown that the active form of vitamin D3, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), can regulate differentiation of CD4+ T cells by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and promoting ...

    Authors: Martin Kongsbak, Marina Rode von Essen, Trine Bøegh Levring, Peter Schjerling, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld and Carsten Geisler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:35

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Alterations of B cell subset distribution have been described in the peripheral blood (PB) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but no data are available on differences between the onset and the established ...

    Authors: Anna Laura Fedele, Barbara Tolusso, Elisa Gremese, Silvia Laura Bosello, Angela Carbonella, Silvia Canestri and Gianfranco Ferraccioli

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:28

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of allergic granulomatosis and necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration. The etiology of EGPA i...

    Authors: Naomi Tsurikisawa, Hiroshi Saito, Chiyako Oshikata, Takahiro Tsuburai, Miyako Ishiyama, Hiroyuki Mitomi and Kazuo Akiyama

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:32

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Various immunotherapeutic approaches have been used for the treatment of cancer. A number of natural compounds are designed to repair, stimulate, or enhance the immune system response. Among them are the hemoc...

    Authors: Vera Gesheva, Stela Chausheva, Nikolina Mihaylova, Iliyan Manoylov, Lyuba Doumanova, Krassimira Idakieva and Andrey Tchorbanov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:34

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders mainly characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. The aims of this study were to estimate the occurrence rate ...

    Authors: Nicholas Brodszki, Göran Jönsson, Lillemor Skattum and Lennart Truedsson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:31

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The inflammasome is an intracellular protein complex triggered by exposure to intracellular pathogens, its components or other endogenous proteins. It leads to the activation of and subsequent release of proin...

    Authors: Hanna K De Jong, Gavin CKW Koh, Miriam HP van Lieshout, Joris JTH Roelofs, Jaap T van Dissel, Tom van der Poll and W Joost Wiersinga

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:30

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Deep-sequencing methods are rapidly developing in the field of B-cell receptor (BCR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity. These promise to revolutionise our understanding of adaptive immune dynamics, identify ...

    Authors: Rachael JM Bashford-Rogers, Anne L Palser, Saad F Idris, Lisa Carter, Michael Epstein, Robin E Callard, Daniel C Douek, George S Vassiliou, George A Follows, Mike Hubank and Paul Kellam

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:29

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Development and function of tissue resident mast cells (MCs) is tightly controlled by various cytokines, most of which belong to the typical T helper (Th) 2-type cytokines such as IL-3 and IL-4. The effects of...

    Authors: Gernot Sellge, Miriam Barkowsky, Sigrid Kramer, Thomas Gebhardt, Leif E Sander, Axel Lorentz and Stephan C Bischoff

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:27

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examine...

    Authors: Fernanda Aimée Nobre, Isabela Garrido da Silva Gonzalez, Raquel Maria Simão, Maria Isabel de Moraes Pinto and Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:26

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin 7 (IL-7) signals via the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) and drives homeostatic T-cell proliferation in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT).

    Authors: Thomas Poiret, Lalit Rane, Mats Remberger, Birgitta Omazic, Åsa Gustafsson-Jernberg, Nalini Kumar Vudattu, Raija Ahmed, Ingemar Ernberg, Jacek Winiarski, Isabelle Magalhaes, Olle Ringden and Markus Maeurer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:25

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics) have been proposed to improve piglets’ immune system to avoid intestinal infections and reduce unproductive inflammation after weaning. Previously, it was demonstrat...

    Authors: Yoshihito Suda, Julio Villena, Yu Takahashi, Shoichi Hosoya, Yohsuke Tomosada, Kohichiro Tsukida, Tomoyuki Shimazu, Hisashi Aso, Masanori Tohno, Mitsuharu Ishida, Seiya Makino, Shuji Ikegami and Haruki Kitazawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2014 15:24

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