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  1. Differential polarization of macrophage into M1 and M2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque clearance through efferocytosis. Higher expression of Mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MerTK) on M2 macrophage helps in...

    Authors: Fatin Najiah Mohd Idrus, Nurul Shuhadah Ahmad, Chee Hock Hoe, Maryam Azlan, Farisha Alia Norfuad, Zurkurnai Yusof, Wan Yus Haniff Wan Isa, Akbar Ali Mohamed Ali and Get Bee Yvonne-Tee
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:21
  2. Bacillus ancthracis causes cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal forms of anthrax. B. anthracis is a pathogenic bacterium that is potentially to be used in bioterrorism because it can be produced in the form ...

    Authors: Jun Ho Jeon, Yeon Hee Kim, Kyung Ae Kim, Yu-Ri Kim, Sun-Je Woo, Ye Jin Choi and Gi-eun Rhie
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:20
  3. We aimed to report the clinical characteristics, immunological features, and treatment of one patient with a de novo STAT3 gain-of-function mutation identified by next generation sequencing. We investigated th...

    Authors: Wenjie Wang, Luyao Liu, Xiaoying Hui, Ying Wang, Wenjing Ying, Qinhua Zhou, Jia Hou, Mi Yang, Bijun Sun, Jinqiao Sun and Xiaochuan Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:19
  4. Kawasaki disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology and most commonly occurs in children under 5 years old. Previous studies have found that the over-activation ...

    Authors: Qian Wu, Ruohang Weng, Yongbin Xu, Linlin Wang, Yanyan Huang and Jun Yang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:17
  5. Behcet’s disease (BD) is a relapsing systemic vascular autoimmune/inflammatory disease. Despite much effort to investigate BD, there are virtually no unique laboratory markers identified to help in the diagnos...

    Authors: Linlin Cheng, Yang Li, Ziyan Wu, Liubing Li, Chenxi Liu, Jianhua Liu, Jiayu Dai, Wenjie Zheng, Fengchun Zhang, Liujun Tang, Xiaobo Yu and Yongzhe Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:16
  6. Immunogenicity is a major challenge in drug development and patient care. Clinicians and regulators are familiar with immunogenicity concerns of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics, growth factors and enzym...

    Authors: Lobna Abdel Aziz Kilany, Ayman Abdel Samie Gaber, Mohammad Mabrouk Aboulwafa and Hamdallah Hafez Zedan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:15
  7. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus first recognized in late December 2019 that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Due to the highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2, it has developed into a global pandemi...

    Authors: Xuzhen Qin, Jun Shen, Erhei Dai, Haolong Li, Guodong Tang, Lixia Zhang, Xin Hou, Minya Lu, Xian Wu, Simeng Duan, Jingjia Zhang, Man-Fung Tsoi, Ping Jiang and Yongzhe Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:14
  8. CD100 is an immune semaphorin family member that highly expressed on T cells, which take part in the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important mediators fo.....

    Authors: Yan Li, Li Qin, Qijun Bai, Jingjing Zhang, Ruixue Chen and Kunpeng Song
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:13
  9. NET (neutrophil extracellular trap) has been shown to directly influence inflammation; in SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), it is reportedly a plausible cause for the broken self-tolerance that contributes t...

    Authors: Alimohammad Fatemi, Razieh Alipour, Hossein Khanahmad, Fereshteh Alsahebfosul, Alireza Andalib and Abbasali Pourazar
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:12
  10. This study investigates the effect of autologous bone marrow transfusion (BMT) on the reconstruction of both bone marrow and the immune system in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL).

    Authors: Yixuan Liu, Suhong Xie, Lei Li, Yanhui Si, Weiwei Zhang, Xin Liu, Lin Guo, Baochi Liu and Renquan Lu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:10
  11. Understanding immune mechanisms, particularly the role of innate immune markers during latent TB infection remains elusive. The main objective of this study was to evaluate mRNA gene expression patterns of tol...

    Authors: Birhan Alemnew, Soren T. Hoff, Tamrat Abebe, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa, Rawleigh Howe and Liya Wassie
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:9
  12. Neutrophils are key components of the exacerbated inflammation and tissue damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) trap and kill extracellular pathogens. While NETs are abu...

    Authors: Samantha L. Tucker, Demba Sarr and Balázs Rada
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:7
  13. It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in m...

    Authors: Qiu-bo Wang, Yun-ting Du, Fei Liu, Xiao-dan Sun, Xun Sun, Guang Chen, Wei Pang and Ya-Ming Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:6
  14. Recent outbreaks of Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection and associated microcephaly has raised multiple scientific questions. The close antigenic relatedness between flaviviruses makes diagnosis of specific infection ...

    Authors: Himanshu Garg, Rose Yeh, Douglas M. Watts, Tugba Mehmetoglu-Gurbuz, Robert Resendes, Bruce Parsons, Fernando Gonzales and Anjali Joshi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:5
  15. No reliable biological marker for the diagnosis of asthma in younger children is currently available. In this study, we analyzed the differences in basophil activation test (BAT) results among children with re...

    Authors: Jingyang Li, Jinhong Wu, Haipei Liu, Li Hua, Quanhua Liu, Dingzhu Fang, Yi Chen, Ruoxu Ji, Jianhua Zhang and Wenwei Zhong
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:4
  16. Tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) can interact with tumor cells to suppress anti-tumor T cell immunity. However, there is no information on whether and how TADCs can modulate programmed death-ligand 1 (...

    Authors: Weigang Xiu and Jingjing Luo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:3

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2021 22:18

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by an overproduction of autoantibodies resulting from dysregulation in multiple immune cell types. D-mannose is a C− 2 epimer of glucose that ex...

    Authors: Haiting Wang, Xiangyu Teng, Georges Abboud, Wei Li, Shuang Ye and Laurence Morel
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:1
  18. C1q is a soluble pattern recognition protein that regulates multiple leukocyte functions, and deficiency in C1q results in autoimmunity. C1q stimulates enhanced phagocytic function through multiple mechanisms ...

    Authors: Emily A. Willmann, Vesna Pandurovic, Anna Jokinen, Danielle Beckley and Suzanne S. Bohlson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:61
  19. The forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor is one of the main markers of immunological suppression in different pathological profiles, and the presence of polymorphic variants may alter the gene e...

    Authors: Leonn Mendes Soares Pereira, Max Willy da Silva Madureira, Renata Bezerra Hermes de Castro, Isabella Nogueira Abreu, Simone Regina Souza da Silva Conde, Sâmia Demachki, Maisa Silva de Sousa, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andrea Nazaré M. Rangel da Silva, Sandra Souza Lima, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:60
  20. Brucellar spondylitis (BS) is one of the most serious complications of brucellosis. CXCR3 is closely related to the severity of disease infection. This research aimed to study the degree of BS inflammatory dam...

    Authors: Xin Hu, Xiaoqian Shang, Liang Wang, Jiahui Fan, Yue Wang, Jie Lv, Shaxika Nazierhan, Hao Wang, Jing Wang and Xiumin Ma
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:59
  21. The immunosuppressive effects of regulatory B-cells (Bregs) and their immunosuppressive cytokines on immune responses in autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), have been recently esta...

    Authors: Mitra Abbasifard, Zahra Kamiab, Mohammad Hasani, Amir Rahnama, Pooya Saeed-Askari and Hossein Khorramdelazad
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:58
  22. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized particles secreted by most cells. EVs carry nucleic acids that hold promise as potential biomarkers in various diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) in...

    Authors: Sukrutha Chettimada, David R. Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Steven M. Wolinsky and Dana Gabuzda
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:57
  23. Pregnancy-specific β1-glycoproteins are capable of regulating innate and adaptive immunity, exerting predominantly suppressive effects. In this regard, they are of interest in terms of their pharmacological po...

    Authors: Valeria P. Timganova, Svetlana A. Zamorina, Larisa S. Litvinova, Natalia M. Todosenko, Maria S. Bochkova, Pavel V. Khramtsov and Mikhail B. Rayev
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:56
  24. Numerous investigations have previously evaluated the association of interleukin (IL) 4 gene polymorphisms and the risk of asthma, conferring inconsistent results. To resolve the incongruent outcomes yielded from...

    Authors: Ahmad Kousha, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Mehdi Forouzesh, Mojgan Hosseini, Markov Alexander, Danyal Imani, Bahman Razi, Mohammad Javad Mousavi, Saeed Aslani and Haleh Mikaeili
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:55
  25. Corticosteroids (CS)s suppress cytokine production and induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells. Prednisone and dexamethasone are oral CSs prescribed for treating asthma exacerbations. While prednisone is more c...

    Authors: Alexander Luchak, Lauren A. Solomon, Tharsan Kanagalingam, Meerah Vijeyakumaran, Brian H. Rowe and Lisa Cameron
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:54
  26. Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis of the childhood. However, its mechanisms and pathogenesis still need more exploration. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, a...

    Authors: Wenjia Chai, Xiaolin Wang, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Wenjun Mou and Jingang Gui
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:53
  27. Previous studies have shown that tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for chronic airflow limitation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as the result of chronic inflammation, usually rel...

    Authors: Elise Guiedem, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, George Mondinde Ikomey, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Martha Mesembe, Mbanyamsig Mispa Yivala, Bih Hycenta Chendi, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Novel Njweipi Chegou and Marie Claire Assoumou Okomo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:52
  28. Chronic immune activation and hyperglycaemia are a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) while natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Dysregulated NK cell responses are associa...

    Authors: Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla, Tawanda M. Nyambuya, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Sithandiwe E. Mazibuko-Mbeje and Bongani B. Nkambule
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:51
  29. The use of inbred mice housed under standardized environmental conditions has been critical in identifying immuno-pathological mechanisms in different infectious and inflammatory diseases as well as revealing ...

    Authors: Josue Enriquez, Brianyell Mc Daniel Mims, Scott Trasti, Kathryn L. Furr and Matthew B. Grisham
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:50
  30. Measles outbreaks have threatened the global elimination and eradication of measles in recent years. Measles virus (MeV)-specific antibodies are successful in clearing MeV infection. Follicular helper T (Tfh) ...

    Authors: Weiyun Shen, Hongzhou Ye, Xilin Zhang, Lixia Huo, Jingli Shen, Li Zhu, Xiang Wang and Dawei Cui
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:49
  31. T cell activation is associated with increase in glycolysis and glutaminolysis. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein-3 (TIM-3), a T cell surface molecule, downregulates T cell activation a...

    Authors: Mi Jin Lee, Su Jin Yun, Bokyoung Lee, Eun Jeong, Gyesoon Yoon, Kyongmin Kim and Sun Park
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:48
  32. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is increasingly utilized in primary immunodeficiency (PI). Understanding factors associated with treatment experience and satisfaction can optimize patient outcomes. We analy...

    Authors: R. Mallick, T. Henderson, B. J. Lahue, A. Kafal, P. Bassett and C. Scalchunes
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:47
  33. Early detection of capecitabine-resistance could largely increase overall survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Previous studies suggested examination of immune cells in peripheral blood would help to ...

    Authors: Yu Lu, Yizhou Huang, Lei Huang, Yanjie Xu, Zien Wang, Han Li, Ting Zhang, Ming Zhong, Wei-qiang Gao and Yan Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:46
  34. Numerous data obtained by different research laboratories indicate that specific IgE production is triggered independently of specific IgG or IgA ones and so it is not linked to fully matured germinal centers ...

    Authors: Dmitrii Borisovich Chudakov, Dmitrii Yuryevich Ryasantsev, Daria Sergeevna Tsaregorotseva, Olga Dmitrievna Kotsareva, Gulnar Vaisovna Fattakhova and Elena Viktorovna Svirshchevskaya
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:45
  35. Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes is an essential tool to evaluate the immune function of patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Predominately identified CD4+T cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, as well ...

    Authors: Hong-Qing Niu, Xiang-Cong Zhao, Wei Li, Jian-Fang Xie, Xiao-Qing Liu, Jing Luo, Wen-Peng Zhao and Xiao-Feng Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:44
  36. The underlying cellular mechanisms causing adverse reactions to food are complex and still not fully understood. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify functional and/or phenotypical immune cell signatu...

    Authors: Friederike Sonnet, Ellen Namork, Eva Stylianou, Ingvild Gaare-Olstad, Kanutte Huse, Sandra Andorf, Siri Mjaaland, Hubert Dirven and Unni Nygaard
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:43
  37. Primary immunodeficiences (PIDs) are a group of chronic, serious disorders in which the immune response is insufficient. In consequence, it leads to an increased susceptibility to infections. Up to date, there...

    Authors: Karolina Pieniawska-Śmiech, Kamil Bar, Mateusz Babicki, Karol Śmiech and Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:42
  38. Recent studies have shown that early growth response 2 (EGR2) is highly induced in activated T cells and regulates T cell functions. In normal C57BL/6 (B6) mice, deletion of EGR2 in lymphocytes results in the ...

    Authors: Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Xiguang Xu, Hehuang Xie, Christopher M. Reilly and S. Ansar Ahmed
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:41
  39. Outcome prediction for patients with sepsis may be conductive to early aggressive interventions. Numerous biomarkers and multiple scoring systems have been utilized in predicting outcomes, however, these tools...

    Authors: Lin Zhang, Cui-hua Yu, Kuan-peng Guo, Cai-zhi Huang and Li-ya Mo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:40
  40. The effects of intravenous immunoglobulin G replacement on perceived health and infection susceptibility of patients suffering from immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiencies should be evaluated in a prospective anal...

    Authors: Rudolf Weide, Roland Schnell, Christof Schardt, Michael Koenigsmann, Burkhard Otremba, Mark-Oliver Zahn, Jan Wierecky, Ute Braun, Manfred Hensel, Martine Klausmann, Doris Fleckenstein, Peter Ehscheidt and Stefan Feiten
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:39
  41. Oral fibroblast immunological responses to bacterial stimuli are well known. However, there are few studies about pulp fibroblasts from deciduous teeth (HDPF) responses, which are important for the treatment o...

    Authors: Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Thiago Jose Dionisio, Thais Francini Garbieri, Rafaela Alves da Silva, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira, Vanessa Soares Lara, Andrew Seth Greene and Carlos Ferreira Santos
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:38
  42. RelB, a member of the NF-κB family, plays a critical role in the development of T cells. However, the role of RelB in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial.

    Authors: Shuping Zhou, Weiwei Wu, Zhaoxia Wang, Zhaopeng Wang, Qinghong Su, Xiaofan Li, Yong Yu, Weidong Zhang, Mingzhao Zhu and Wei Lin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:37
  43. Innate immune cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via release of cytokines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKi) are clinically efficacious in patients wi...

    Authors: Yuya Fujita, Naoki Matsuoka, Jumpei Temmoku, Makiko Furuya-Yashiro, Tomoyuki Asano, Shuzo Sato, Haruki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hideko Kozuru, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Atsushi Kawakami and Kiyoshi Migita
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:35
  44. Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) is a novel biomarker of sepsis used for early diagnosis. Originally, CD14 is known as the pattern recognition receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/LBP complexes, and the d...

    Authors: Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Tetsuo Mohri, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Nobuhiro Asai, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Kenta Murotani, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu and Hiroshige Mikamo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2020 21:33

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