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  1. Content type: Research article

    Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in respo...

    Authors: Hamid Beiki, Abbas Pakdel, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad and James M. Reecy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:2

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric complication of HIV/AIDS. While considerable research has been undertaken to understand the psychosocial risk factors of MDD, there is a paucity of data ...

    Authors: Kenneth Musinguzi, Andrew Obuku, Noeline Nakasujja, Harriet Birabwa, Juliet Nakku, Jonathan Levin and Eugene Kinyanda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:1

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Chemokines and their cognate receptors play important role in the control of leukocyte chemotaxis, HIV entry and other inflammatory diseases. Developing an effcient method to investigate the functional express...

    Authors: Baosheng Ge, Jiqiang Li, Zhijin Wei, Tingting Sun, Yanzhuo Song and Naseer Ullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:54

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Some patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) also have positivity of rheumatoid factor (RF). However, the clinical significance of this occurrence remains unknown i...

    Authors: Shinji Watanabe, Takahisa Gono, Kumiko Nishina, Naohiro Sugitani, Eri Watanabe, Hiroki Yabe and Chihiro Terai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:53

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence ...

    Authors: Louisa Kühne, Bettina Jung, Helen Poth, Antonia Schuster, Simone Wurm, Petra Ruemmele, Bernhard Banas and Tobias Bergler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:52

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  6. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1...

    Authors: Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi and Xiuli Ju

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:51

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to contr...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, Vânia Maphossa, Ivalda Macicame, Nilesh Bhatt, Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, Ilesh Jani and Luc Kestens

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:50

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  8. Content type: Research article

    It is well known that ABO blood group system incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an effective strategy for end-stage renal disease. The main barrier for ABOi-KT is how to keep host B cell activati...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Luogen Liu, Yunsheng Zhang, Jianhua Xiao and Yi Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:49

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  9. Content type: Research article

    To investigate natural killer (NK) cell activity, circulating cytokine level and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production status in critically ill patients.

    Authors: Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Kim, Hana Jeong, Jey Sook Chae, Young Sam Kim, Jae Gil Lee, Younsoo Cho and Jong Ho Lee

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:48

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  10. Content type: Research Article

    Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to ...

    Authors: Wensheng Chen, Darrell Pilling and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:47

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pat...

    Authors: Unni Gopinathan, Reidun Øvstebø, Berit Sletbakk Brusletto, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Peter Kierulf, Petter Brandtzaeg and Jens Petter Berg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:46

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an imm...

    Authors: Shireen Nigar, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Takuma Okajima, Suguru Shigemori, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita and Takeshi Shimosato

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:44

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  13. Content type: Methodology article

    Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especial...

    Authors: Akane Tanaka, Joyce To, Bronwyn O’Brien, Sheila Donnelly and Maria Lund

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:43

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is t...

    Authors: Manoochehr Karami, Pegah Ameri, Jalal Bathaei, Zeinab Berangi, Tahereh Pashaei, Ali Zahiri, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Hussein Erfani and Koen Ponnet

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:42

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2017 18:45

  15. Content type: Research article

    We previously reported that JAK–STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitini...

    Authors: Keigo Ikeda, Kunihiro Hayakawa, Maki Fujishiro, Mikiko Kawasaki, Takuya Hirai, Hiroshi Tsushima, Tomoko Miyashita, Satoshi Suzuki, Shinji Morimoto, Naoto Tamura, Kenji Takamori, Hideoki Ogawa and Iwao Sekigawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:41

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced...

    Authors: Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu and Ming Q. Wei

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:40

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  17. Content type: Research article

    CIGB-247, a VSSP-adjuvanted VEGF-based vaccine, was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (CENTAURO). Vaccination with the maximum dose of antigen showed an excellent saf...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana de la Torre Santos, Eduardo Rafael Santiesteban Álvarez, Yenima Martín Bauta, Cimara H. Bermúdez Badell, Josué de la Torre Pupo, Jorge V. Gavilondo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:39

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) was reported as an active participant in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This study aimed to investigate the major source ofIL-9 and its effect on interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobu...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Ying Wang, Jiangping Li, Sha Li, Yannan Zhang, Juan Shen, Weiping Tan and Changyou Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:38

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling ...

    Authors: Joseph A. Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M. Stemmer and Allen Rosenspire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:37

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activatio...

    Authors: Wenjun Mou, Wei Han, Xiaoli Ma, Xiaolin Wang, Hong Qin, Wen Zhao, Xiaoya Ren, Xi Chen, Wei Yang, Haiyan Cheng, Xisi Wang, Hui Zhang, Xin Ni, Huanmin Wang and Jingang Gui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:36

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  21. Content type: Methodology article

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (http://​www.​imgt.​org), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier Uni...

    Authors: Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida and Marie-Paule Lefranc

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:35

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF...

    Authors: Marian-Christopher Pott, Natalie Frede, Jennifer Wanders, Lennart Hammarström, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Cristina Glocker, Fariba Tahami and Bodo Grimbacher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:34

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of...

    Authors: Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen and Dawei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:33

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific...

    Authors: Xin-yao Wu, Yu-feng Yin, Jia-lin Teng, Li-wei Zhang and Cheng-de Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:32

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  25. Content type: Research

    In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro leve...

    Authors: James K. Peterson, Alison M. Kesson and Nicholas J. C. King

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):24

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  26. Content type: Research

    Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological le...

    Authors: Anass Bouchnita, Gennady Bocharov, Andreas Meyerhans and Vitaly Volpert

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):29

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  27. Content type: Review

    There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remot...

    Authors: Olivier Garraud, Wael N. Hozzein and Gamal Badr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):23

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  28. Content type: Research

    The RATE tool was recently developed to computationally infer the HLA restriction of given epitopes from immune response data of HLA typed subjects without additional cumbersome experimentation.

    Authors: Sinu Paul, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Veronique Schulten, Luise Westernberg, John Sidney, Bjoern Peters and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):20

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  29. Content type: Methodology article

    Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient’s body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) a...

    Authors: Maria Kuznetsova, Julia Lopatnikova, Julia Khantakova, Rinat Maksyutov, Amir Maksyutov and Sergey Sennikov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:31

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages ...

    Authors: Darrell Pilling, Elkin Galvis-Carvajal, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Nehemiah Cox and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:30

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, da...

    Authors: Annette Audigé, Mary-Aude Rochat, Duo Li, Sandra Ivic, Audrey Fahrny, Christina K. S. Muller, Gustavo Gers-Huber, Renier Myburgh, Simon Bredl, Erika Schlaepfer, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Stefan P. Kuster and Roberto F. Speck

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:28

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  32. Content type: Research article

    We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the ...

    Authors: Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N. McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C. Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O. Eko, Carolyn M. Black, Joseph U. Igietseme and Qing He

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:27

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  33. Content type: Research article

    T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional ...

    Authors: Noriyuki Takahashi, Takayuki Saitoh, Nanami Gotoh, Yasuhiro Nitta, Lobna Alkebsi, Tetsuhiro Kasamatsu, Yusuke Minato, Akihiko Yokohama, Norifumi Tsukamoto, Hiroshi Handa and Hirokazu Murakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:26

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogeni...

    Authors: Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang and Ivan-Chen Cheng

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:25

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. The pur...

    Authors: Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Wei Gao, Wenhua Li, Chuang Meng, Qiuxiang Yan, Yuyang Wang, Xiaohui Zhou, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:21

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Delayed wound healing reduces the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Thus, understanding the mechanism of wound healing is indispensable for better management. However, the role of innate immunity in wound hea...

    Authors: Kazuhide Takada, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Naoko Hirohata, Quang Duy Trinh, Atsuyoshi Nishina, Hirokazu Kimura and Satoshi Hayakawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:19

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are p...

    Authors: Cristina Vazquez-Mateo, Justin Collins, Michelle Fleury and Hans Dooms

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:18

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  38. Content type: Research article

    To assess the impact of disease activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Authors: Benjamin Chaigne, Carlo Chizzolini, Thomas Perneger, Marten Trendelenburg, Uyen Huynh-Do, Eric Dayer, Thomas Stoll, Johannes von Kempis and Camillo Ribi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:17

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  39. Content type: Methodology article

    In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to...

    Authors: Sascha Barabas, Theresa Spindler, Richard Kiener, Charlotte Tonar, Tamara Lugner, Julia Batzilla, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner and Ludwig Deml

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:14

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Pri...

    Authors: Bernhard Banas, Carsten A. Böger, Gerhard Lückhoff, Bernd Krüger, Sascha Barabas, Julia Batzilla, Mathias Schemmerer, Josef Köstler, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Ralf Wagner, Ludwig Deml, Joachim Leicht and Bernhard K. Krämer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:15

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) w...

    Authors: Shyamashree Banerjee, Parth Sarthi Sen Gupta and Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:13

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute liver injury and the complex mechanisms include the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in many species. However, immuno-pathological changes duri...

    Authors: Xi-Yao Huang, Abdur Rahman Ansari, Hai-Bo Huang, Xing Zhao, Ning-Ya Li, Zhi-Jian Sun, Ke-Mei Peng, Juming Zhong and Hua-Zhen Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:12

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicit...

    Authors: Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Xiaomei Wang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang and Xueqiong Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:11

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Allergy to cat epithelia is highly prevalent, being the major recommendation for allergy sufferers its avoidance. However, this is not always feasible. Allergen specific immunotherapy is therefore recommended ...

    Authors: María Morales, Mayte Gallego, Victor Iraola, Marta Taulés, Eliandre de Oliveira, Raquel Moya and Jerónimo Carnés

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:10

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Patients experiencing large thermal injuries are susceptible to opportunistic infections that can delay recovery and lead to sepsis. Dendritic cells (DC) are important for the detection of pathogens and activa...

    Authors: Leon Bae, Julia K. Bohannon, Weihua Cui, Monika Vinish and Tracy Toliver-Kinsky

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:9

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Hyperactive secretion and pathogenic effects of interleukin (IL)-17 and IgA have been detected in different arthropathies. Recent evidence has revealed that TH17 cytokines regulate mucosal IgA secretion. However,...

    Authors: Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, Juan Eduardo Silva, Mabel Noemí Dave, María Gabriela Lacoste, Héctor Tamashiro, Rodrigo Blas, Alicia Munarriz, Gabriel Adrián Rabinovich and María Silvia Di Genaro

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:8

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  47. Content type: Research article

    While tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi) and other biologics are very effective against autoimmune diseases, they can also cause infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to clarify wh...

    Authors: Shoichi Fukui, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshiko Takahashi, Naoki Iwamoto, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Akihiko Okayama and Atsushi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:7

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