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  1. While dealing with mixed in vitro lymphocyte cultures one is faced with the problem of relative contributions of different populations to the activity being studied. This is especially true in the controversy rel...

    Authors: R Nirmala and PR Narayanan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:9
  2. Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE respon...

    Authors: Walderez O Dutra, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David Dunne, Luiza Fosenca Cecchini, Lúcia Fraga, Morven Roberts, Alda Maria Soares-Silveira, Michelle Webster, Hans Yssel and Kenneth J Gollob
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:8
  3. "Alternatively-activated" macrophages are found in Th2-mediated inflammatory settings such as nematode infection and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Due in part to a lack of markers, these cells have not been...

    Authors: P'ng Loke, Meera G Nair, John Parkinson, David Guiliano, Mark Blaxter and Judith E Allen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:7
  4. In asthma and other allergic disorders, the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen induces the cells to release histamine and other mediators of inflammation, as well as to produce certain cytokines and c...

    Authors: Koichi Sayama, Maximilian Diehn, Kentaro Matsuda, Carolina Lunderius, Mindy Tsai, See-Ying Tam, David Botstein, Patrick O Brown and Stephen J Galli
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:5
  5. Gene transfer studies in primary T cells have suffered from the limitations of conventional viral transduction or transfection techniques. Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are an attractive alternative...

    Authors: Vincent Hurez, Robin Dzialo-Hatton, James Oliver, R James Matthews and Casey T Weaver
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:4
  6. Macrophages, upon encounter with micro-organisms or stimulated by cytokines, produce various effector molecules aimed at destroying the foreign agents and protecting the organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)...

    Authors: Pierre-Jacques Ferret, Emmanuelle Soum, Olivier Negre and Didier Fradelizi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:3
  7. T helper epitopes are necessary for the induction of high titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies. We are interested in the epitope modification of intact proteins as a method to enhance their immunogenicity...

    Authors: Jeanette M Mucha, Marcia M Stickler, AJ Poulose, Grant Ganshaw, Mae Saldajeno, Kathy Collier, Manley T Huang and Fiona A Harding
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:2
  8. Intrathymic development and selection of the T lymphocyte repertoire is restricted by the interactions of the T cell antigen receptor and CD4 or CD8 co-receptors with self major histocompatibility complex mole...

    Authors: Hector Martinez-Valdez, Vicente Madrid-Marina and Amos Cohen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2002 3:1
  9. Macrophages sense microorganisms through activation of members of the Toll-like receptor family, which initiate signals linked to transcription of many inflammation associated genes. In this paper we examine w...

    Authors: David A Hume, David M Underhill, Matthew J Sweet, Adrian O Ozinsky, Foo Y Liew and Alan Aderem
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:11
  10. T cells from HIV+ and aged individuals show parallels in terms of suppressed proliferative activity and interleukin-2 (I1-2) production and an increased number of CD8+ CD28- T cells. In order to compare cytokine ...

    Authors: Edward H Eylar, Carmen E Lefranc, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Ineabely Báez, Sol Luis Colón-Martinez, Nayra Rodriguez and T B Breithaupt
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:10
  11. The immune system is particularly sensitive to stress. Although acute stress generally has positive effects, chronic stress typically provokes immunosuppression. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in i...

    Authors: Lourdes Domínguez-Gerpe and Manuel Rey-Méndez
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:7
  12. The identification of antigens on human DC has been a very difficult and elusive task because of the lack of appropriate reagents. Therefore, we evaluated by flow cytometry a panel of mAb that recognize antige...

    Authors: Rafael Nunez and Luis Filgueira
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:6
  13. Increasing evidence suggests that the effect of HLA-E on Natural Killer (NK) cell activity can be affected by the nature of the peptides bound to this non-classical, MHC class Ib molecule. However, its reduced...

    Authors: James Stevens, Etienne Joly, John Trowsdale and Geoffrey W Butcher
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:5
  14. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell development and function. Mutations of Btk elicit X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency in the mouse. Btk has been proposed ...

    Authors: Michael G Tomlinson, Douglas B Woods, Martin McMahon, Matthew I Wahl, Owen N Witte, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Joseph B Bolen and James A Johnston
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:4
  15. The Tec family kinases are implicated in signaling from lymphocyte antigen receptors and are activated following phosphorylation by Src kinases. For most Tec kinases, this activation requires an interaction be...

    Authors: Mario Chamorro, Michael J Czar, Jayanta Debnath, Genhong Cheng, Michael J Lenardo, Harold E Varmus and Pamela L Schwartzberg
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:3
  16. Lymphoid tissues constitute basic structures where specific immune responses take place. This leads to the development of germinal centres (GCs), migration of cells and the generation of memory cells. Here, we...

    Authors: Berta Vidal-Rubio, Marta Sanchez-Carril, Josefina Oliver-Morales, África González-Femandez and Francisco Gambón-Deza
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:2
  17. Peroxynitrite is increasingly proposed as a contributor to defence system in marine bivalve. It can be formed by combinaison of superoxide and nitric oxide, and can react with tyrosine residues of proteins giv...

    Authors: Jean Torreilles and Bernard Romestand
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2001 2:1
  18. NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytopl...

    Authors: Loree J Kim, Heather A Ferguson, Anita G Seto and James A Goodrich
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2000 1:1

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