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  1. Immune cells and cytokines have been linked to viremia dynamic and immune status during HIV infection. They may serve as useful biomarkers in the monitoring of people living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1). The present w...

    Authors: Yaou Pierrot Assogba, Adefounke Prudencia Adechina, Edmond Tchiakpe, Odilon Paterne Nouatin, René K. Kèkè, Moussa Bachabi, Honoré Sourou Bankole and Akadiri Yessoufou
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:22
  2. Helminth-derived proteins have immunomodulatory properties, influencing the host’s immune response as an adaptive strategy for helminth survival. Helminth-derived proteins modulate the immune response by induc...

    Authors: Maimonah Alghanmi, Faisal Minshawi, Tarfa A. Altorki, Ayat Zawawi, Isra Alsaady, Abdallah Y Naser, Hassan Alwafi, Soa’ad M. Alsulami, Ala A. Azhari, Anwar M Hashem and Rowa Alhabbab
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:21
  3. The human interleukin-17 (IL-17) family comprises IL-17A to IL-17 F; their receptors are IL-17RA to IL-17RE. Evidence revealed that these cytokines can have a tumor-supportive or anti-tumor impact on human mal...

    Authors: Ali Moadab, Mohammad Rafie Valizadeh, Alireza Nazari and Hossein Khorramdelazad
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:20
  4. Here, the perspective of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency receiving subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) via introductory smaller size pre-filled syringes (PFS) or vials were compared.

    Authors: R. Mallick, G. Solomon, P. Bassett, X. Zhang, P. Patel and O. Lepeshkina
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:18
  5. Itch sensitization has been reported in patients with chronic allergic skin diseases and observed in a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There is evidence suggesting that neuroimmune interactio...

    Authors: Tichakorn Singto, Viviane Filor, Jonathan Vidak, Robert Klopfleisch and Wolfgang Bäumer
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:17
  6. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of artemisinin in treating primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) based on network pharmacology and experimental validation.

    Authors: Jia-he Liao, Qian He, Zi-wei Huang, Xin-bo Yu, Jian-ying Yang, Yan Zhang, Wei-jiang Song, Jing Luo and Qing-wen Tao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:16
  7. We aimed to investigate the immune characteristics of intestinal CD8+ gamma delta T (CD8+ γδ T) cells in Crohn’s disease (CD) and their correlation with disease activity.

    Authors: Tao Zhu, Linlin Zhu, Caixia Sheng, Danju Wu, Qianru Gu, Zhinong Jiang, Jiaqi Xu, Guoxiang Fu and Yujie Jiang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:15
  8. Haemoglobin (Hb) variants such as sickle cell trait (SCT/HbAS) play a role in protecting against clinical malaria, but little is known about the development of immune responses against malaria parasite (Plasmodiu...

    Authors: Kwame Kumi Asare, Benjamin Agrah, Fiifi Solomon Ofori-Acquah, William Kudzi, Nii Ayite Aryee and Linda Eva Amoah
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:14
  9. The reconstruction of clonal families (CFs) in B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire analysis is a crucial step to understand the adaptive immune system and how it responds to antigens. The BCR repertoire of an ind...

    Authors: Daria Balashova, Barbera D. C. van Schaik, Maria Stratigopoulou, Jeroen E. J. Guikema, Tom G. Caniels, Mathieu Claireaux, Marit J. van Gils, Anne Musters, Dornatien C. Anang, Niek de Vries, Victor Greiff and Antoine H. C. van Kampen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:13
  10. Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori), is an established causative factor for the development of gastric cancer and the induction of persistent stomach infections that may lead to peptic ulcers. In recent decades, s...

    Authors: Arezo Kaveh-Samani, Samaneh Dalali, Fatemeh Kaviani, Tohid Piri-Gharaghie and Abbas Doosti
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:11
  11. More than 90% of patients with diabetes worldwide are type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is caused by insulin resistance or impaired producing insulin by pancreatic β cells. T2D and its complications, mainly large c...

    Authors: YongHui Yin, YingLi Sheng, Shuo Gao, JinTao Zhang, WenKuan Wang, YingJun Liu, TingTing Xu and Yi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:10
  12. Intra-ductal cancer (IDC) is the most common type of breast cancer, with intra-lobular cancer (ILC) coming in second. Surgery is the primary treatment for early stage breast cancer. There are now irrefutable d...

    Authors: Hassan A. Saad, Azza Baz, Mohamed Riad, Mohamed E. Eraky, Ahmed El-Taher, Mohamed I. Farid, Khaled Sharaf, Huda E. M. Said and Lotfy A. Ibrahim
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:9
  13. The objective of this study was to identify potential predictors of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy among serum indexes, case data, and li...

    Authors: Jingting Wang, Yan Ma, Haishan Lin, Jing Wang and Bangwei Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:8
  14. Biomarkers that can predict outcome will improve the efficacy of treatment for HNSCC patients. In this regard, we retrospectively evaluated the prognostic effect of PD1, PD-L1, and CD45RO in tongue and larynx ...

    Authors: Simin Ahmadvand, Lotf-Ali Norouzi, Yousef Mohammadi, Akbar Safaei, Bijan Khademi, Maziar Motiee-Langroudi and Abbas Ghaderi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:7
  15. The ability of generating effective humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been clarified in lymphoma patients. The study aimed to investigate the antibody (Ab) production after SARS-Cov-2 in...

    Authors: Huan Xie, Jing Zhang, Ran Luo, Yan Qi, Yizhang Lin, Changhao Han, Xi Li and Dongfeng Zeng
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:5
  16. Immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, neutrophils and T cell subsets, have been implicated in the context of obesity. However, the specific role of Th2 cells in adipose tissue function has remained elusi...

    Authors: Lijun Dong, Jingtao Gao, Lu Yu, Shibo Liu, Yuxin Zhao, Wen Zhang, Yinming Liang and Hui Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:4
  17. Lung cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), can bring long-term survival benefits to patients, but also can bring immune-related adverse events (irAE...

    Authors: Kailian Hou, Weipeng Ye, Qunfeng Huang, Weiyi Li, Zhiqiong Tan, Na tao, Dongheng yang, Haoxin Lin, Zihao Deng, Yuanyuan Xia and Guifang Yu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:3
  18. Despite the functions of TLRs in the parasitic infections have been extensively reported, few studies have addressed the role of TLR3 in the immune response to Schistosoma japonicum infections. The aim of this st...

    Authors: Hongyan Xie, Dianhui Chen, Yuanfa Feng, Feng Mo, Lin Liu, Junmin Xing, Wei Xiao, Yumei Gong, Shanni Tang, Zhengrong Tan, Guikuan Liang, Shan Zhao, Weiguo Yin and Jun Huang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2024 25:2
  19. The interaction between the nervous system and the immune system can affect the outcome of a bacterial infection. Staphylococcus aureus skin infection is a common infectious disease, and elucidating the relations...

    Authors: Changyu Huang, Yang Chen, Yuanqing Cai, Haiqi Ding, Jiaoying Hong, Shan You, Yiming Lin, Hongxin Hu, Yongfa Chen, Xueni Hu, Yanshu Chen, Ying Huang, Chaofan Zhang, Yunzhi Lin, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li…
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:55
  20. Authors: Ahmad A. Al Ghamdi, Gamal Badr, Wael N. Hozzein, Ahmed Allam, Noori S. Al-Waili, Mohammed A. Al-Wadaan and Olivier Garraud
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:54
  21. Malignant pleural effusion (MPE), which is a complex microenvironment that contains numerous immune and tumour signals, is common in lung cancer. Gene alterations, such as driver gene mutations, are believed t...

    Authors: Lei-lei Lv, Hong-bin Wang, Yao-xin Zhang, Jia-wei Zhai, Yu Shen, Qiu-Xia Qu and Cheng Chen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:53
  22. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common immune-mediated condition with its molecular pathogenesis remaining to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the role of FUT2 in human I...

    Authors: Jing Cai, Hao Wu, Chenxing Wang, Yujiao Chen, Dingli Zhang, Shiwei Guan, Beilei Fu, Yingli Jin and Cao Qian
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:51
  23. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to promote T cell migration and increase the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and chemokines. The administration of Xpro-1595, a dominant-negative TN...

    Authors: Kusuma Sai Davuluri, Amit Kumar Singh, Vimal Kumar Yadav, Ajay Vir Singh, Shoor Vir Singh and Devendra Singh Chauhan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:49
  24. Control of Tuberculosis (TB) infection is mainly the result of productive teamwork between T-cell populations and antigen presenting cells (APCs). However, APCs activation at the site of initiating cellular im...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Xin Li, Aihong Xia, Zhifang Zhang, Jiaxu Wan, Yan Gao, Chuang Meng, Xiang Chen and Xin-an Jiao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:48
  25. Liver failure, which is predominantly caused by hepatitis B (HBV) can be improved by an artificial liver support system (ALSS). This study investigated the phenotypic heterogeneity of immunocytes in patients w...

    Authors: Tao Ju, Daixi Jiang, Chengli Zhong, Huafen Zhang, Yandi Huang, Chunxia Zhu, Shigui Yang and Dong Yan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:47
  26. Multi-epitope polypeptide vaccines, a fusion protein, often have a string-of-beads system composed of various specific peptide epitopes, potential adjuvants, and linkers. When choosing the sequence of various ...

    Authors: Niloofar Sadat Tabibpour, Abbas Doosti and Ali Sharifzadeh
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:46
  27. SARS-CoV-2 remains a world-wide health issue. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is induced upon both infection and vaccination. However, defining the long-term immune trajectory, especially after infection, is limi...

    Authors: Astrid Korning Hvidt, Huaijian Guo, Rebecca Andersen, Stine Sofie Frank Lende, Line Khalidan Vibholm, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Marianne Hoegsbjerg Schleimann, Victoria Russell, Angela Man-Wei Cheung, Eustache Paramithiotis, Rikke Olesen and Martin Tolstrup
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:45
  28. Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), but its serious side effects can be life-threatening for PV patients. Tacrolimus (FK506) has been reported to have an adjuvant treatmen...

    Authors: Zhimin Xie, Xiangnong Dai, Qingqing Li, Sifan Lin and Xingdong Ye
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:43
  29. Lymphedema is an intractable disease that can be caused by injury to lymphatic vessels, such as by surgical treatments for cancer. It can lead to impaired joint mobility in the extremities and reduced quality ...

    Authors: Toshihiko Nishioka, Kei-ichi Katayama, Shinji Kumegawa, Kyoichi Isono, Takashi Baba, Hiroshi Tsujimoto, Gen Yamada, Norimitsu Inoue and Shinichi Asamura
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:42
  30. The aim of this study is to clarify the changes of peripheral CD3CD56+CD16+ NK cells and their correlation with Th1/Th2 immunity profiles in asthma during the phase of acute upper respiratory viral infections (A...

    Authors: Meixuan Liu, Yunxuan Zhang, Yunqian Hu, Zhongliang Guo and Lin Dong
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:40
  31. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira species. Variations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure in Leptospira are known to be associated with the serovar diversity and antigenicity. Development...

    Authors: Dakshika Gangani, Wathsala Dissanayake, Rajiva de Silva, Kaushalya Anuradha, Lilani Karunanayake, Narmada Fernando, Senaka Rajapakse, Sunil Premawansa and Shiroma Handunnetti
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:39
  32. Novel prophylactic drugs and vaccination strategies for protection against influenza virus should induce specific effector T-cell immune responses in pulmonary airways and peripheral lymphoid organs. Designing...

    Authors: Jing Tian, Wenrui Fu, Zifeng Xie, Xiaonan Wang, Miao Miao, Fengping Shan and Xiaodong Yu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:38
  33. The association between lipid metabolism disorder and carcinogenesis is well-established, but there is limited research on the connection between lipid metabolism-related genes (LRGs) and lung adenocarcinoma (...

    Authors: Yi Yin, Muqun He, Yunjian Huang and Xianhe Xie
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:37
  34. Digestive autoimmune conditions are a growing challenge to global health. Risk factors associated with autoimmune digestive diseases are complex, including genetic variation, immunological dysfunction, and var...

    Authors: Lina Sun and Baojun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:36
  35. Bcl-3 is a member of the IκB protein family and an essential modulator of NF-κB activity. It is well established that Bcl-3 is critical for the normal development, survival and differentiation of adaptive immu...

    Authors: Hui Liu, Lin Zeng, Mengmeng Pan, Liwenhui Huang, Hanying Li, Mengxia Liu, Xinqing Niu, Chenguang Zhang and Hui Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:35
  36. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19. Although the detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 viral RNA by RT‐qPCR is the gold st...

    Authors: Kengo Nishimura, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Takashi Kawahata, Kosuke Yuhara, Takahiro Masuya, Toshihiro Kuroita, Kentarou Waki, Seiichi Koike, Masaharu Isobe and Nobuyuki Kurosawa
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:34
  37. Patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) often express a different type of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs), each associated with different clinical symptoms. Understanding the immunopathoge...

    Authors: Joung-Liang Lan, Shih-Hsin Chang, Gregory J. Tsay, Der-Yuan Chen, Yu-Hua Chao and Ju-Pi Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:33
  38. HLA-B27 positivity is normal in patients undergoing rheumatic diseases. The diagnosis of many diseases requires an HLA-B27 examination.

    Authors: Jichong Zhu, Weiming Tan, Xinli Zhan, Qing Lu, Tuo Liang, JieJiang, Hao Li, Chenxing Zhou, Shaofeng Wu, Tianyou Chen, Yuanlin Yao, Shian Liao, Chaojie Yu, Liyi Chen and Chong Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:32
  39. The role of dendritic cells and the autophagy state of dendritic cells in the immune response of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was still controversial. In this study, we carefully examined the phenotype, f...

    Authors: Hua Xu, Juan Kang, Shan Zhong, Min Chen, Peng Hu, Hong Ren, Zhi Zhou and Yu Lei
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:31
  40. Inflammasomes are a group of molecules that are strongly involved in causing inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of NLR family pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1), NLRP3, and Apoptosis-asso...

    Authors: Zahra Bagheri-Hosseinabadi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Fatemeh Bahrehmand and Mitra Abbasifard
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:30
  41. . Lack of exposure to the natural microbial diversity of the environment has been linked to dysregulation of the immune system and numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as allergies and autoimmune disorders....

    Authors: Laura Kummola, Martín I. González-Rodríguez, Pertti Marnila, Noora Nurminen, Tanja Salomaa, Lotta Hiihtola, Iida Mäkelä, Olli H. Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Aki Sinkkonen and Ilkka S. Junttila
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:29
  42. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have shown promising results in adoptive immunotherapy. However, serum may play a determining role in the large-scale expansion of these cells for clinical applications. Acc...

    Authors: Zahra Jabbarpour, Seyed Sajjad Aghayan, Kobra Moradzadeh, Sasan Ghaffari and Naser Ahmadbeigi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2023 24:28

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