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  1. Excessive inflammatory response is the primary cause of early death in patients with endotoxemia. Interleukin 22 (IL-22) has been shown to play critical roles in the modulation of infectious diseases, but its ...

    Authors: Chang Yu, Qihua Ling, Junzhe Jiao, Juhong Liu, Zhihua Huang, Fang Wang, Xuehua Sun and Xiaoni Kong
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:45
  2. Autophagy is an important mechanism for promoting Mycobacterium clearance from macrophages. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterium can activate the mTOR pathway while simultaneously inducing autophagy. M. tu...

    Authors: Maria Gonzalez-Orozco, Emily J. Strong, Ruchi Paroha and Sunhee Lee
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:43
  3. The significance of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clarified. This study was dedicated to exploring the potential pathogenic roles...

    Authors: Xue Bai, Peng-Cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Hao-Miao Zhang, Si-Jing Wu, Xia Yang, Shan Gao, Jun-Ya Jia, Jian-Qing Jiang and Tie-Kun Yan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:42
  4. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell-mediated immunosuppression is an essential mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known regarding the specific role of CD4+CD25Foxp3+ Treg cells in RA...

    Authors: Bomiao Ju, Li Zhu, Jing Wang, Jian Zheng, Zhiming Hao, Jing Luo, Jing Zhang, Nan Hu, Qi An, Xiuyuan Feng, Yongwei Huo and Lan He
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:41
  5. T cell lymphopenia was a significant characteristic of severe influenza infection and it was associated with the functional changes of T cells. It is necessary to clarify the T cells characteristics of kinetic...

    Authors: Shuai Liu, Zhisheng Huang, Ruyue Fan, Ju Jia, Xiaoyan Deng, Xiaohui Zou, Hui Li and Bin Cao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:40
  6. This study was designed to investigate the role of the nucleotide-binding-domain -and leucine-rich repeat -containing (NLR) family, pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of polymyo...

    Authors: Ping Xia, Yu-Quan Shao, Cong-Cong Yu, Yu Xie and Zhi-Jie Zhou
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:39
  7. Tumor-associated macrophages are considered to be a major contributor affecting the development of tumors. Recently, numerous studies have shown that tumor cells were able to educate their microenvironment by ...

    Authors: Yilin Peng, Min Zhao, Yinying Hu, Hongyan Guo, Yanyan Zhang, Yanqin Huang, Lin Zhao, Yong Chai and Zhigang Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:37
  8. Major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated adaptive immune response as they present antigenic peptides (p) which are recognized by host T cells through a complex formati...

    Authors: Lisa Tomasiak, Rudolf Karch and Wolfgang Schreiner
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23(Suppl 1):36

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 23 Supplement 1

  9. Interleukin (IL)-7 signaling through CD127 is impaired in lymphocytes in cancers and chronic infections, resulting in CD8+ T cell exhaustion. The mechanisms underlying CD8+ T cell responses to IL-7 in melanoma re...

    Authors: Hongxia He, Binjun Qiao, Shuping Guo, Hongzhou Cui, Ziyan Zhang and Junxia Qin
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:35
  10. HIV eradication efforts have been unsuccessful partly due to virus persistence in immune sanctuary sites such as germinal centres within lymph node (LN) tissues. Recent evidence suggests that LNs harbour a nov...

    Authors: Bongiwe Mahlobo, Faatima Laher, Werner Smidt, Funsho Ogunshola, Trevor Khaba, Thandeka Nkosi, Anele Mbatha, Thandekile Ngubane, Krista Dong, Ismail Jajbhay, Johan Pansegrouw and Zaza M. Ndhlovu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:34
  11. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. IL-5, POSTN, and IL-33 are important factors that act as chemoat...

    Authors: Hanna Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Milena Paprocka-Zjawiona, Anna Merecz-Sadowska, Radosław Zajdel, Katarzyna Bliźniewska-Kowalska and Katarzyna Malinowska
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:33
  12. Impaired spermatozoa immunogenicity can result in pregnancy complications such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Given that spermatozoa contact with microbiota, it is possible that inappropriate microbi...

    Authors: Mitra Rafiee, Nasrin Sereshki, Razieh Alipour, Vahid Ahmadipanah, Davod Pashoutan Sarvar and David Wilkinson
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:32
  13. BKPyV associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKPyV-HC) is a major and prevalent outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with no standard treatment option. Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) against tran...

    Authors: Maryam Mohammadi Najafabadi, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Ahmadvand, Mina Soufi Zomorrod and Seied Asadollah Mousavi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:31
  14. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, which mainly includes lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells) and monocytes. Cryopr...

    Authors: Bo Li, Chunmei Yang, Gui Jia, Yansheng Liu, Na Wang, Fangfang Yang, Rui Su, Yulong Shang and Ying Han
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:30
  15. Enhancer of Zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is a polycomb group gene and an epigenetic regulator that inhibits transcription, a modification associated with gene silencing. EZH2 plays an essential role in humoral and...

    Authors: Shi-yi Wu, Zhao-yu Xie, Lu-yu Yan, Xiao-fang Liu, Yue Zhang, Da-an Wang, Jie Dong and Hong-tao Sun
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:28
  16. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogen that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Different types of the varicella vaccines derived from the Oka and MAV/06 strains are commercially available worldwide....

    Authors: Duckhyang Shin, Younchul Shin, Eunmi Kim, Hyojung Nam, Haiyan Nan and Jaewoo Lee
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:27
  17. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junctions. Cytokines play important roles in facilitating the immune response and augmenting the pathogenic antibody production. The cur...

    Authors: Xiao Huan, Rui Zhao, Jie Song, Huahua Zhong, Manqiqige Su, Chong Yan, Ying Wang, Sheng Chen, Zhirui Zhou, Jiahong Lu, Jianying Xi, Sushan Luo and Chongbo Zhao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:26
  18. Understanding the immune correlates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in HIV infection is an important area of investigation in the current era of aging with HIV infection. Less is known about CVD risk and ...

    Authors: Bagavathi Kausalya, Shanmugam Saravanan, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Shelly Rani Saini, Syed Iqbal, Sunil Solomon, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy and Savita Pahwa
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:24
  19. Asthma is a common chronic airway disease in the world. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of IL1-RL1 in sputum and its correlation with Th1 and Th2 cytokines in asthma.

    Authors: Changyi Xu, Lijuan Du, Fengjia Chen, Kun Tang, Lu Tang, Jia Shi, Lisha Xiao, Zhimin Zeng, Yuxia Liang and Yubiao Guo
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:23
  20. To investigate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles and the variations of polymorphic amino acid changes in DRβ1 chain in Shaanxi Han population with Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI).

    Authors: Tianju Wang, Chunmei Shen, Hengxin Li, Liping Chen, Sheng Liu and Jun Qi
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:22
  21. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and microneme-associated antigen (MIC) of Plasmodium parasites are important factors involved in host cell invasion.

    Authors: Min-Ju Kim, Ki-Back Chu, Hae-Ji Kang, Keon-Woong Yoon, Dong-Hun Lee, Su-Hwa Lee, Eun-Kyung Moon and Fu-Shi Quan
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:21
  22. Immunotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) regulates specific immune checkpoints and, when used in combination with chemotherapy, can improve patient prognosis. One specific immune checkpoint is the recruitment ...

    Authors: Shelby N. Bess, Gage J. Greening, Narasimhan Rajaram and Timothy J. Muldoon
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:20
  23. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a used chemotherapy drug for cancer, and its main side effect is intestinal mucositis which causes chemotherapy to fail. It was known that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can inhibit i...

    Authors: Xi Yue, Sun Wen, Ding Long-kun, Yan Man, Sun Chang, Zhang Min, Li Shuang-yu, Qian Xin, Ma Jie and Wu Liang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:19
  24. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of dysfunctional exhausted CD8+ T cells that hamper viral control. We investigated the phenotypic heterogeneity of exhausted CD8+ T cells...

    Authors: Daixi Jiang, Can Chen, Danying Yan, Xiaobao Zhang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Dong Yan, Dawei Cui and Shigui Yang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:18
  25. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation is beneficial for several chronic diseases; however, its effect on immune regulation is still debated. Given the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and bec...

    Authors: Shuting Wu, Shanshan Wang, Lili Wang, Hongyan Peng, Shuju Zhang, Qinglan Yang, Minghui Huang, Yana Li, Shuzhen Guan, Wenjuan Jiang, Zhaohui Zhang, Qinghua Bi, Liping Li, Yuan Gao, Peiwen Xiong, Zhaoyang Zhong…
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:17
  26. Identifying immunogens which can elicit effective T cell responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for developing a T-cell based vaccine. It has been reported that human leukoc...

    Authors: Hui Zhang, Chuan He, Fanming Jiang, Shuang Cao, Bin Zhao, Haibo Ding, Tao Dong, Xiaoxu Han and Hong Shang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:15
  27. Oxidative stress plays a critical role on the processes of sepsis, and several microRNAs have been identified that may regulate the occurrence of oxidative stress. However, the relation between oxidative stres...

    Authors: Yingwei Ou, Rongcheng An, Haochu Wang, Lue Chen, Yong Shen, Wenwei Cai and Wei Zhu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:14
  28. Alopecia areata (AA) is a common inflammatory disorder targeting the hair follicles leading to non-scaring hair loss. The pathogenesis of AA is still unclear, despite the accumulating evidence of the immune-me...

    Authors: Abdel-Khalek Younes, Refaat Hammad, Mona Othman and Ali Sobhy
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:13
  29. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes impairment of T and B cell responses, which begins during the acute phase of infection and is not completely restored by antiretroviral treatment. Regulatory ...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Cacildo Magul, Rosa Macamo, Vânia Monteiro, Maria Enosse, Ivalda Macicame, Victória Cumbane, Nilesh Bhatt, Edna Viegas, Michelle Imbach, Leigh Anne Eller, Christina S. Polyak and Luc Kestens
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:12
  30. The B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire is highly diverse among individuals. Poor similarity of the spectrum among inbred baseline mice may limit the ability to discriminate true signals from those involving spec...

    Authors: Hongkai Wu, Zhichao Zhou, Shi Xie, Rong Yan, Mingxing Gong, Xingui Tian and Zhanhui Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:11
  31. In addition to its role in antigen presentation, recent reports establish a new role for endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) in innate immunity; however, the mechanisms underlying these functions ar...

    Authors: Maja K. Blake, Patrick O’Connell, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Sarah Godbehere, Yasser A. Aldhamen and Andrea Amalfitano
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:9
  32. Probiotics positively affect inflammatory responses, in part, through Janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and inflammatory signaling pathways. To evaluate the precise eff...

    Authors: Shadi Aghamohammad, Amin Sepehr, Seyedeh Tina Miri, Saeideh Najafi, Mahdi Rohani and Mohammad R. Pourshafiea
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:8
  33. While antibodies can provide significant protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease sequelae, the specific attributes of the humoral response that contribute to immunity are incompletely defined.

    Authors: Harini Natarajan, Shiwei Xu, Andrew R. Crowley, Savannah E. Butler, Joshua A. Weiner, Evan M. Bloch, Kirsten Littlefield, Sarah E. Benner, Ruchee Shrestha, Olivia Ajayi, Wendy Wieland-Alter, David Sullivan, Shmuel Shoham, Thomas C. Quinn, Arturo Casadevall, Andrew Pekosz…
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:7
  34. Immune response is prevalently related with major depressive disorder (MDD) pathophysiology. However, the study on the relationship between immune-related genes (IRGs) and immune infiltrates of MDD remains sca...

    Authors: Linna Ning, Zhou Yang, Jie Chen, Zhaopeng Hu, Wenrui Jiang, Lixia Guo, Yan Xu, Huiming Li, Fanghua Xu and Dandong Deng
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:6
  35. Determining T cell responses to naturally processed and presented antigens is a critical immune correlate to determine efficacy of an investigational immunotherapeutic in clinical trials. In most cases, minima...

    Authors: Jay Friedman, Sreenivasulu Gunti, Maxwell Lee, Ke Bai, Christian Hinrichs and Clint T. Allen
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:5
  36. Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, lacking specific diagnosis and disease activity evaluation indicators. This study will analyze the activity and clinic...

    Authors: Zhiye Xu, Linyu Geng, LiLi Guo, Hongyan Song, Jie Pan, Han Shen and Sen Wang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:4
  37. This study was aimed to identify the biomarkers for diagnosis and reveal the immune microenvironment changes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

    Authors: Tuo Liang, Jiarui Chen, GuoYong Xu, Zide Zhang, Jiang Xue, Haopeng Zeng, Jie Jiang, Tianyou Chen, Zhaojie Qin, Hao Li, Zhen Ye, Yunfeng Nie, Xinli Zhan and Chong Liu
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:3
  38. Despite high rate of vaccination coverage with 2-doses of measles containing vaccine among Iranian children, outbreaks of measles occurred among different age groups and fully vaccinated subjects. Although the...

    Authors: Hana Saffar, Sayed Jaber Mousavi, Hiva Saffar, Mohammad-Reza Parsaei, Gholam-Reza Ghorbani and Mohammad Jafar Saffar
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:2
  39. Formin-binding protein 1/17 (FNBP1/FBP17), as a membrane-bound protein, is wildly expressed in eukaryotic cells and performs a critical role in tumor tumorigenesis and progression. However, the relationship betwe...

    Authors: Zixuan Wang, Zixin Tian, Xi Song and Jun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2022 23:1
  40. The chemokine CXCL1, known as growth-related oncogene α (GRO-α), is a potent chemoattractant and regulator of neutrophils. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the regulatory response of CXCL1 in the serum...

    Authors: Yanli Zeng, Qiaoduan Lin, Liang Yu, Xuelian Wang, Yiqiang Lin, Yan Zhang, Shuidi Yan, Xinxin Lu, Yijing Li, Weibin Li and Yun Xiao
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:82
  41. ABP501 is a biosimilar to Reference Adalimumab (HUMIRA®) produced by AMGEN. Adalimumab (ADA) has a marketing authorization for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory or autoimmune diseases....

    Authors: Fabien Francois, Loubna Naimi, Xavier Roblin, Anne-Emmanuelle Berger and Stephane Paul
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:81
  42. Appropriate reference ranges of T lymphocyte subsets are essential for immune status evaluation of patients with immunological diseases. We aim to establish the age- and sex-related reference intervals of T ly...

    Authors: Bin Wei, Ying Guo, Liangjun Zhang, Huixiu Zhong, Qiang Miao, Lin Yan, Yangjuan Bai, Weihua Feng, Weiping Liu, Qian Niu and Yi Li
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:80
  43. Interleukin (IL)-15 is a proinflammatory T-cell growth factor overexpressed in several autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Our initial strategy to neutralize the increased levels of IL-15 consist...

    Authors: Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Lino Gerardo Batista-Roche, Alexey Llopiz-Arzuaga, Pedro Puente-Pérez, Rafael Martínez-Castillo, Jorge Castro-Velazco and Alicia Santos-Savio
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:79
  44. Inflammatory arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by inflammation and destruction of the joints. Approximately one third of patients do not respond to firs...

    Authors: A. L. Hansen, L. S. J. Rahbek, A. S. Sørensen, M. P. Hundahl, S. Lomholt, C. K. Holm and Tue W. Kragstrup
    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:77

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