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  1. Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 9 (KCTD9), a member of KCTD family with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain, was found to be increased particularly in NK cells of patients with HBV-induce...

    Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Lin Zhu, Yaoyong Zhou, Aichao Shi, Hongwu Wang, Meifang Han, Xiaoyang Wan, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Xiaoping Luo, Tao Chen and Qin Ning

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:20

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4+ T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) presentation of Mtb antigens (Ags). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most p...

    Authors: Zhengzhong Xu, Aihong Xia, Xin Li, Zhaocheng Zhu, Yechi Shen, Shanshan Jin, Tian Lan, Yuqing Xie, Han Wu, Chuang Meng, Lin Sun, Yuelan Yin, Xiang Chen and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the crit...

    Authors: Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan and Yong Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:18

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Fra-1 (fosl1) belongs to the activator protein1 (AP-1) family inducing IL-11 expression in oxidative stress condition. IL-11 plays a pivotal role in protecting epithelial barriers integrity. In this study, we inv...

    Authors: Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba Shohan, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Nader Bagheri, Amin Soltani, Fatemeh Deris, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani and Ehsan Razmara

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:17

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Cancer immunoprevention is based on the fact that a functioning immune system controls tumor onset and development in humans and animals, thus leading to the idea that the enhancement of immune responses in he...

    Authors: Arianna Palladini, Lorena Landuzzi, Pier-Luigi Lollini and Patrizia Nanni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:16

    Content type: Review

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  6. Although a safe and effective yellow fever vaccine was developed more than 80 years ago, several issues regarding its use remain unclear. For example, what is the minimum dose that can provide immunity against...

    Authors: Carla R. B. Bonin, Guilherme C. Fernandes, Rodrigo W. dos Santos and Marcelo Lobosco

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:15

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont is a biotechnology product for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vaccine induces a neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response, against the normal circula...

    Authors: Puyuan Xing, Hongyu Wang, Sheng Yang, Xiaohong Han, Yan Sun and Yuankai Shi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:14

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tumor-Associated Neutrophils (TANs) may be able to induce lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis, although the detailed roles of TANs remain unclear. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an inflammation-based ...

    Authors: Soichiro Hiramatsu, Hiroaki Tanaka, Junya Nishimura, Chie Sakimura, Tatsuro Tamura, Takahiro Toyokawa, Kazuya Muguruma, Masakazu Yashiro, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:13

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be an autoimmune disease driven by anti-islet antigen responses and mediated by T-cells. Recent published data suggests that T-cell reactivity to modified peptides, effectiv...

    Authors: John Sidney, Jose Luis Vela, Dave Friedrich, Ravi Kolla, Matthias von Herrath, Johnna D. Wesley and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:12

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current...

    Authors: Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang and Wentao Yue

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:10

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The potency of T regulatory (TREG) cells to inhibit T helper (Th)-driven immune cell responses has been linked to increased intracellular cyclic-AMP (cAMP) levels of TREG cells. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven al...

    Authors: Kari J. Dugger, Taylor Chrisman, Sarah L. Sayner, Parker Chastain, Kacie Watson and Robert Estes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:9

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk betwe...

    Authors: Tammy Oth, Thomas H. P. M. Habets, Wilfred T. V. Germeraad, Marijke I. Zonneveld, Gerard M. J. Bos and Joris Vanderlocht

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:8

    Content type: Research article

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  13. As a factor contributing to the tumor cell drug resistance, tumor microenvironment (TME) is being paid increasingly attention. However, the drug resistance of malignantly transformed cells in TME has rarely be...

    Authors: Xifeng Fei, Anqi Wang, Delin Wang, Xan Meng, Jiawei Ma, Lei Hong, Ruwei Qin, Aidong Wang, Jun Dong, Qiang Huang and Zhimin Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:7

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The need for rapid and accurate comparison of panels of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and subsequent rational down selection, presents several challenges for modern vaccine development. Here we describe a me...

    Authors: Sumera Y. Younis, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Simon Heuking, Vinod Sommandas, Livia Brunner, Nicole vd.Werff, Patrice Dubois, Martin Friede, Clemens Kocken, Nicolas Collin and Ed Remarque

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:6

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with...

    Authors: Melanie Lohrberg, Reinhard Pabst and Jörg Wilting

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:5

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been widely used in children to prevent invasive Hib disease because of its strong immunogenicity and antibody response induction relative to the caps...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yun Liao, Yongrong Wang, Shengjie Ouyang, Yanchun Che, Miao Xu, Jing Pu, Qi Shen, Zhanlong He, Qiang Ye and Qihan Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:4

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  17. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are believed to play an important role in growth, progression, and metastasis ...

    Authors: Jurgita Jackute, Marius Zemaitis, Darius Pranys, Brigita Sitkauskiene, Skaidrius Miliauskas, Simona Vaitkiene and Raimundas Sakalauskas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in respo...

    Authors: Hamid Beiki, Abbas Pakdel, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad and James M. Reecy

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:2

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric complication of HIV/AIDS. While considerable research has been undertaken to understand the psychosocial risk factors of MDD, there is a paucity of data ...

    Authors: Kenneth Musinguzi, Andrew Obuku, Noeline Nakasujja, Harriet Birabwa, Juliet Nakku, Jonathan Levin and Eugene Kinyanda

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2018 19:1

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Chemokines and their cognate receptors play important role in the control of leukocyte chemotaxis, HIV entry and other inflammatory diseases. Developing an effcient method to investigate the functional express...

    Authors: Baosheng Ge, Jiqiang Li, Zhijin Wei, Tingting Sun, Yanzhuo Song and Naseer Ullah Khan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:54

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Some patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) also have positivity of rheumatoid factor (RF). However, the clinical significance of this occurrence remains unknown i...

    Authors: Shinji Watanabe, Takahisa Gono, Kumiko Nishina, Naohiro Sugitani, Eri Watanabe, Hiroki Yabe and Chihiro Terai

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence ...

    Authors: Louisa Kühne, Bettina Jung, Helen Poth, Antonia Schuster, Simone Wurm, Petra Ruemmele, Bernhard Banas and Tobias Bergler

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1...

    Authors: Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi and Xiuli Ju

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:51

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to contr...

    Authors: Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, Vânia Maphossa, Ivalda Macicame, Nilesh Bhatt, Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, Ilesh Jani and Luc Kestens

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:50

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. It is well known that ABO blood group system incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an effective strategy for end-stage renal disease. The main barrier for ABOi-KT is how to keep host B cell activati...

    Authors: Jingsong Cao, Luogen Liu, Yunsheng Zhang, Jianhua Xiao and Yi Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. To investigate natural killer (NK) cell activity, circulating cytokine level and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production status in critically ill patients.

    Authors: Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Kim, Hana Jeong, Jey Sook Chae, Young Sam Kim, Jae Gil Lee, Younsoo Cho and Jong Ho Lee

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to ...

    Authors: Wensheng Chen, Darrell Pilling and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:47

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  28. Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pat...

    Authors: Unni Gopinathan, Reidun Øvstebø, Berit Sletbakk Brusletto, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Peter Kierulf, Petter Brandtzaeg and Jens Petter Berg

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an imm...

    Authors: Shireen Nigar, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Takuma Okajima, Suguru Shigemori, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita and Takeshi Shimosato

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especial...

    Authors: Akane Tanaka, Joyce To, Bronwyn O’Brien, Sheila Donnelly and Maria Lund

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:43

    Content type: Methodology article

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  31. The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is t...

    Authors: Manoochehr Karami, Pegah Ameri, Jalal Bathaei, Zeinab Berangi, Tahereh Pashaei, Ali Zahiri, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Hussein Erfani and Koen Ponnet

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2017 18:45

  32. We previously reported that JAK–STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitini...

    Authors: Keigo Ikeda, Kunihiro Hayakawa, Maki Fujishiro, Mikiko Kawasaki, Takuya Hirai, Hiroshi Tsushima, Tomoko Miyashita, Satoshi Suzuki, Shinji Morimoto, Naoto Tamura, Kenji Takamori, Hideoki Ogawa and Iwao Sekigawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:41

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced...

    Authors: Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu and Ming Q. Wei

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:40

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. CIGB-247, a VSSP-adjuvanted VEGF-based vaccine, was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (CENTAURO). Vaccination with the maximum dose of antigen showed an excellent saf...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Ramírez, Yanelys Morera Díaz, Mónica Bequet-Romero, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Katty-Hind Selman-Housein Bernal, Ana de la Torre Santos, Eduardo Rafael Santiesteban Álvarez, Yenima Martín Bauta, Cimara H. Bermúdez Badell, Josué de la Torre Pupo, Jorge V. Gavilondo and Marta Ayala Avila

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:39

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) was reported as an active participant in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This study aimed to investigate the major source ofIL-9 and its effect on interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobu...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Ying Wang, Jiangping Li, Sha Li, Yannan Zhang, Juan Shen, Weiping Tan and Changyou Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling ...

    Authors: Joseph A. Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M. Stemmer and Allen Rosenspire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:37

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activatio...

    Authors: Wenjun Mou, Wei Han, Xiaoli Ma, Xiaolin Wang, Hong Qin, Wen Zhao, Xiaoya Ren, Xi Chen, Wei Yang, Haiyan Cheng, Xisi Wang, Hui Zhang, Xin Ni, Huanmin Wang and Jingang Gui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (http://​www.​imgt.​org), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier Uni...

    Authors: Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida and Marie-Paule Lefranc

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:35

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  39. The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF...

    Authors: Marian-Christopher Pott, Natalie Frede, Jennifer Wanders, Lennart Hammarström, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Cristina Glocker, Fariba Tahami and Bodo Grimbacher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:34

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of...

    Authors: Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen and Dawei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:33

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific...

    Authors: Xin-yao Wu, Yu-feng Yin, Jia-lin Teng, Li-wei Zhang and Cheng-de Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological le...

    Authors: Anass Bouchnita, Gennady Bocharov, Andreas Meyerhans and Vitaly Volpert

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  43. In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro leve...

    Authors: James K. Peterson, Alison M. Kesson and Nicholas J. C. King

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  44. There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remot...

    Authors: Olivier Garraud, Wael N. Hozzein and Gamal Badr

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  45. The RATE tool was recently developed to computationally infer the HLA restriction of given epitopes from immune response data of HLA typed subjects without additional cumbersome experimentation.

    Authors: Sinu Paul, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Veronique Schulten, Luise Westernberg, John Sidney, Bjoern Peters and Alessandro Sette

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18(Suppl 1):20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  46. Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient’s body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) a...

    Authors: Maria Kuznetsova, Julia Lopatnikova, Julia Khantakova, Rinat Maksyutov, Amir Maksyutov and Sergey Sennikov

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:31

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  47. Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages ...

    Authors: Darrell Pilling, Elkin Galvis-Carvajal, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Nehemiah Cox and Richard H. Gomer

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:30

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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