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  1. Content type: Research article

    Comprehensive understanding of cellular immune subsets involved in regulation of tumor progression is central to the development of cancer immunotherapies. Single cell immunophenotyping has historically been a...

    Authors: Elma Kadić, Raymond J. Moniz, Ying Huo, An Chi and Ilona Kariv

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:6

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform...

    Authors: Kurt Hanevik, Einar Kristoffersen, Kristine Mørch, Kristin Paulsen Rye, Steinar Sørnes, Staffan Svärd, Øystein Bruserud and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:5

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised althoug...

    Authors: Ying-Ying Hey, Benjamin Quah and Helen C. O’Neill

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:4

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  4. Content type: Research Article

    Oxidative damage present in obese/overweight mothers may lead to further oxidative stress conditions or inflammation in maternal and cord blood samples. Thirty-four pregnant women/newborn pairs were included i...

    Authors: María Hernández-Trejo, Araceli Montoya-Estrada, Yessica Torres-Ramos, Aurora Espejel-Núñez, Alberto Guzmán-Grenfell, Rosa Morales-Hernández, Maricruz Tolentino-Dolores and Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2017 18:3

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  5. Content type: Research article

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress tumor immunity by inhibiting immune cells. Manipulation of Treg cells represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisph...

    Authors: Hsien Liu, Shih-Han Wang, Shin-Cheh Chen, Ching-Ying Chen, Jo-Lin Lo and Tsun-Mei Lin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:45

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    The Luminex bead-based multiplex assay is useful for quantifying immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Cross-comparisons of reagents for this technique from different suppliers have already been p...

    Authors: Mathieu Surenaud, Céline Manier, Laura Richert, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Yves Levy, Sophie Hue and Christine Lacabaratz

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:44

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I family of genes encode for molecules that have well-conserved structures, but have evolved to perform diverse functions. The availability of the gray, short-t...

    Authors: Katina V. Krasnec, Anthony T. Papenfuss and Robert D. Miller

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:43

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The small intestine is a specialized compartment were close interactions take place between host, microbes, food antigens and dietary fatty acids. Dietary fats get absorbed by epithelial cells and processed in...

    Authors: Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Aletta D. Kraneveld, Lieke Rutten, Johan Garssen, Arjan P. Vos and Anita Hartog

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:42

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Although histone methyltransferases EZH2 has been proved to have significant regulatory effect on the immune rejection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, its role in solid-organ transplantation rem...

    Authors: Long Li, Yi Zhang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Jina Wang and Tongyu Zhu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:41

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a heterogeneous population of CD4+ helper T cells that promotes pathogenic immune responses in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the status of differe...

    Authors: Deying Liu, Jinxiang Liu, Jinghua Wang, Congcong Liu, Sirui Yang and Yanfang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:40

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8+ T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltr...

    Authors: Andrew J. Highton, Adam Girardin, Georgia M. Bell, Sarah M. Hook and Roslyn A. Kemp

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:39

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  12. Content type: Research article

    High-throughput sequencing of T cell receptor (TCR) genes is a powerful tool for analyses of antigen specificity, clonality and diversity of T lymphocytes. Here, we developed a new TCR repertoire analysis meth...

    Authors: Kazutaka Kitaura, Tadasu Shini, Takaji Matsutani and Ryuji Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:38

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin c...

    Authors: Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng and Jianping Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:37

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with ESRD. Donor CMV seropositivity is associated with higher graft loss. Dendritic cells, macrophages and Th17 lymp...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Imad Lahdou, Gerhard Opelz, Arianeb Mehrabi, Martin Zeier, Paul Schnitzler and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:35

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Bladder cancer, cystitis and bladder polyp are the most common urinary system diseases all over the world. Our former research results show that IL-17A and IL-17 F contribute to the pathogenesis of benign pros...

    Authors: Yanbo Liu, Wanguo Yang, Lijing Zhao, Zuowen Liang, Weigao Shen, Qinlong Hou, Zhenjiang Wang, Jing Jiang and Sun Ying

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:36

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Although Hizentra is indicated for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, phase III trials have focused on patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In th...

    Authors: J. F. Viallard, P. Agape, V. Barlogis, G. Cozon, C. Faure, F. Fouyssac, C. Gaud, M. P. Gourin, M. Hamidou, C. Hoarau, F. Husseini, M. Ojeda-Uribe, M. Pavic, I. Pellier, A. Perlat, N. Schleinitz…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:34

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin-15 is an immunostimulatory cytokine overexpressed in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, psoriasis and ulcerative colitis; thus, inhibition of IL-15-induced s...

    Authors: Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Yanelys Morera-Díaz, Haydee Gerónimo-Pérez, Jorge Castro-Velazco, Rafael Martínez-Castillo, Pedro Puente-Pérez, Vladimir Besada-Pérez, Eugenio Hardy-Rando, Araceli Chico-Capote, Klaudia Martínez-Cordovez and Alicia Santos-Savio

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:30

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Fetuin-A/AHSH is a novel hepatokine that acts as a vascular calcification inhibitor and as an endogenous TLR-4 ligand. Fetuin-A may act as a positive or negative acute phase protein (APP) in disease conditions...

    Authors: Sardar Sindhu, Nadeem Akhter, Steve Shenouda, Ajit Wilson and Rasheed Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:33

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In the context of tumor immunology, tumor cells have been shown to overexpress CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal directed to macrophages to escape from phagocytosis by interacting with Signal Regulatory Protein ...

    Authors: Gizem Bener, Alex J. Félix, Cristina Sánchez de Diego, Isabel Pascual Fabregat, Carlos J. Ciudad and Véronique Noé

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:32

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Despite recent advances in early detection and improvements in chemotherapy for colon cancer, the patients still face poor prognosis of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, the median survival for patients...

    Authors: Huanyu Ju, Wenjing Xing, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Zheng, Xiuzhi Jia, Benning Zhang and Huan Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:31

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Recently, the immunostimulatory roles of chemotherapeutics have been increasingly revealed, although bone marrow suppression is still a common toxicity of chemotherapy. While the numbers and ratios of differen...

    Authors: Yanhong Wu, Zhenling Deng, Huiru Wang, Wenbo Ma, Chunxia Zhou and Shuren Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:29

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to characterize specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses in men who have sex with men (MSM) subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CRF01_AE subtyp...

    Authors: Fanming Jiang, Xiaoxu Han, Hui Zhang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Tao Dong and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:28

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The lung is exposed to airborne fungal spores, and fungi that colonize the oral cavity such as Candida albicans, but does not develop disease to opportunistic fungal pathogens unless the immune system is compromi...

    Authors: Sabarirajan Jayaraja, Azzeddine Dakhama, Bogeon Yun, Moumita Ghosh, HeeJung Lee, Elizabeth F. Redente, Charis L. Uhlson, Robert C. Murphy and Christina C. Leslie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:27

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Capparis Spinosa L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in dry regions around the Mediterranean basin. Capparis Spinosa was shown to possess several properties such as antioxidant, antif...

    Authors: Mouna Moutia, Khadija El Azhary, Anass Elouaddari, Abdellah Al Jahid, Jamal Jamal Eddine, Fouad Seghrouchni, Norddine Habti and Abdallah Badou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:26

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The mouse strain BALB/c deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (Il-1ra) develops spontaneous arthritis disease (SAD) while the strain DBA/1 IL1rn -/- with the same deficiency doe...

    Authors: Xiaoyun Liu, Yan Jiao, Yanhong Cao, Nan Deng, Yonghui Ma, Karen A. Hasty, Andrew Kang, Hong Chen, John M. Stuart and Weikuan Gu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:25

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins present antigenic peptides for immune surveillance and play critical roles in nervous system development and plasticity. Most MHCI are transmembrane pro...

    Authors: Karla K. Frietze, Adlai L. Pappy II, Jack W. Melson, Emily E. O’Driscoll, Carolyn M. Tyler, David H. Perlman and Lisa M. Boulanger

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:24

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered autologous T-cells is becoming a successful therapy for cancer. The avidity of the engineered T-cells is of crucial importance for therapy success. We have in the pa...

    Authors: Victoria Hillerdal, Vanessa F. Boura, Hanna Björkelund, Karl Andersson and Magnus Essand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:23

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Mast cells are hematopoietically derived cells that play a role in inflammatory processes such as allergy, as well as in the immune response against pathogens by the selective and rapid release of preformed an...

    Authors: Valéria Cintra Barbosa-Lorenzi, Nerry Tatiana Cecilio, Patricia Andressa de Almeida Buranello, Maria Cristina Pranchevicius, Maria Helena S. Goldman, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Maria Célia Jamur and Constance Oliver

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:22

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 modulates porcine mononuclear phagocytes from Peyer’s patches (PPMPs) and induces a differential production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to Toll-l...

    Authors: Kohichiro Tsukida, Takuya Takahashi, Hikaru Iida, Paulraj Kanmani, Yoshihito Suda, Tomonori Nochi, Shuichi Ohwada, Hisashi Aso, Sou Ohkawara, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Tadao Saito, Julio Villena and Haruki Kitazawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:21

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Children are prone to get infections, especially in the respiratory system and the gut mainly because their immune system is immature. T cells significantly contribute to the prevention of infections, and diff...

    Authors: Erxia Shen, Mengjie Wang, Hairui Xie, Ruqiong Zou, Qiwen Lin, Lili lai, Fujun Li, Zhimei Liang, Yanran Xu and Maohua Zhou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:20

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Inappropriate activation of T lymphocytes plays an important role in perinatal complications. However, data on T lymphocyte activation markers of preterm infants is scarce. We investigated the association betw...

    Authors: Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, Tivadar Tulassay and Barna Vásárhelyi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:19

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  32. Content type: Database

    Promiscuous T-cell epitopes that can be presented by multiple human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are prime targets for vaccine and immunotherapy development because they are effective in a high proportion of the ...

    Authors: Shufeng Wang, Ling Guo, Dong Liu, Wei Liu and Yuzhang Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:17

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Humanized mouse models are an increasingly popular preclinical model to study the human immune response in a biological system. There are a variety of protocols to generate these mice, each differing in the st...

    Authors: Crystal Dykstra, Amanda J. Lee, Evan J. Lusty, Mira M. Shenouda, Mahsa Shafai, Fatemeh Vahedi, Marianne V. Chew, Stephen Collins and Ali A. Ashkar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:18

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Serglycin proteoglycans are essential for maturation of secretory granules and for the correct granular storage of cationic proteases in hematopoietic cells, e.g. mast cells. However, little is known about the...

    Authors: Ananya Roy, Osama Sawesi, Ulrika Pettersson, Anders Dagälv, Lena Kjellén, Anna Lundén and Magnus Åbrink

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:15

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Previous evidence suggested that the differentiation of Lin-CD45RA-DC precursors were prior to plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) within ovarian cancer microenvironment. How...

    Authors: Xue-qian Qian, Li-li Chen, Qi Cheng, Yang Tian, Xiao-feng Luo and Xiao-yun Wan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:14

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in t...

    Authors: Ruth Forman, Michael Bramhall, Larisa Logunova, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M. Cruickshank and Kathryn J. Else

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:12

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  37. Content type: Methodology article

    Immunologists often measure several correlated immunological markers, such as concentrations of different cytokines produced by different immune cells and/or measured under different conditions, to draw insigh...

    Authors: Bernd Genser, Joachim E. Fischer, Camila A. Figueiredo, Neuza Alcântara-Neves, Mauricio L. Barreto, Philip J. Cooper, Leila D. Amorim, Marcus D. Saemann, Thomas Weichhart and Laura C. Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:11

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In genetically modified (GM) crops there is a risk that the inserted genes may introduce new allergens and/or adjuvants into the food and feed chain. The MON810 maize, expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab toxin,...

    Authors: Monica Andreassen, Thomas Bøhn, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark, Johanna Bodin, Terje Traavik, Martinus Løvik and Unni Cecilie Nygaard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:10

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors used to control innate immune responses such as proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. Trem genes be...

    Authors: Jun Kasamatsu, Mengyao Deng, Masahiro Azuma, Kenji Funami, Hiroaki Shime, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Masanori Kasahara and Tsukasa Seya

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:9

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to mo...

    Authors: Julia A. Najera, Eduardo A. Bustamante, Nikki Bortell, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Timothy Ravasi and Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:7

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is a common and essential practice in conducting research. There are different reports in the literature as to whether cryopreserved PBMCs need to...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Norma Diaz, Joseph Adelsberger, Xueyuan Zhou, Randy Stevens, Adam Rupert, Julia A. Metcalf, Mike Baseler, Christine Barbon, Tomozumi Imamichi, Richard Lempicki and Louis M. Cosentino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:6

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence indicates that in addition to the T-cell receptor, microclustering is an important mechanism for the activation of the B-cell receptor and the mast cell Fcε-receptor. In macrophages and neutrop...

    Authors: Jia Lin, Svetlana Kurilova, Brandon L. Scott, Elizabeth Bosworth, Bradley E. Iverson, Elizabeth M. Bailey and Adam D. Hoppe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:5

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to exp...

    Authors: Lindsey Russell, Gordon Broderick, Renee Taylor, Henrique Fernandes, Jeanna Harvey, Zachary Barnes, AnneLiese Smylie, Fanny Collado, Elizabeth G. Balbin, Ben Z. Katz, Nancy G. Klimas and Mary Ann Fletcher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:3

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