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  1. Content type: Research article

    Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with ESRD. Donor CMV seropositivity is associated with higher graft loss. Dendritic cells, macrophages and Th17 lymp...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi, Imad Lahdou, Gerhard Opelz, Arianeb Mehrabi, Martin Zeier, Paul Schnitzler and Volker Daniel

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:35

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Although Hizentra is indicated for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, phase III trials have focused on patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In th...

    Authors: J. F. Viallard, P. Agape, V. Barlogis, G. Cozon, C. Faure, F. Fouyssac, C. Gaud, M. P. Gourin, M. Hamidou, C. Hoarau, F. Husseini, M. Ojeda-Uribe, M. Pavic, I. Pellier, A. Perlat, N. Schleinitz…

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:34

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin-15 is an immunostimulatory cytokine overexpressed in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, psoriasis and ulcerative colitis; thus, inhibition of IL-15-induced s...

    Authors: Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Yanelys Morera-Díaz, Haydee Gerónimo-Pérez, Jorge Castro-Velazco, Rafael Martínez-Castillo, Pedro Puente-Pérez, Vladimir Besada-Pérez, Eugenio Hardy-Rando, Araceli Chico-Capote, Klaudia Martínez-Cordovez and Alicia Santos-Savio

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:30

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Fetuin-A/AHSH is a novel hepatokine that acts as a vascular calcification inhibitor and as an endogenous TLR-4 ligand. Fetuin-A may act as a positive or negative acute phase protein (APP) in disease conditions...

    Authors: Sardar Sindhu, Nadeem Akhter, Steve Shenouda, Ajit Wilson and Rasheed Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:33

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In the context of tumor immunology, tumor cells have been shown to overexpress CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal directed to macrophages to escape from phagocytosis by interacting with Signal Regulatory Protein ...

    Authors: Gizem Bener, Alex J. Félix, Cristina Sánchez de Diego, Isabel Pascual Fabregat, Carlos J. Ciudad and Véronique Noé

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:32

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Despite recent advances in early detection and improvements in chemotherapy for colon cancer, the patients still face poor prognosis of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, the median survival for patients...

    Authors: Huanyu Ju, Wenjing Xing, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Zheng, Xiuzhi Jia, Benning Zhang and Huan Ren

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:31

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Recently, the immunostimulatory roles of chemotherapeutics have been increasingly revealed, although bone marrow suppression is still a common toxicity of chemotherapy. While the numbers and ratios of differen...

    Authors: Yanhong Wu, Zhenling Deng, Huiru Wang, Wenbo Ma, Chunxia Zhou and Shuren Zhang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:29

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to characterize specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses in men who have sex with men (MSM) subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CRF01_AE subtyp...

    Authors: Fanming Jiang, Xiaoxu Han, Hui Zhang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Tao Dong and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:28

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The lung is exposed to airborne fungal spores, and fungi that colonize the oral cavity such as Candida albicans, but does not develop disease to opportunistic fungal pathogens unless the immune system is compromi...

    Authors: Sabarirajan Jayaraja, Azzeddine Dakhama, Bogeon Yun, Moumita Ghosh, HeeJung Lee, Elizabeth F. Redente, Charis L. Uhlson, Robert C. Murphy and Christina C. Leslie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:27

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Capparis Spinosa L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in dry regions around the Mediterranean basin. Capparis Spinosa was shown to possess several properties such as antioxidant, antif...

    Authors: Mouna Moutia, Khadija El Azhary, Anass Elouaddari, Abdellah Al Jahid, Jamal Jamal Eddine, Fouad Seghrouchni, Norddine Habti and Abdallah Badou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:26

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The mouse strain BALB/c deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (Il-1ra) develops spontaneous arthritis disease (SAD) while the strain DBA/1 IL1rn -/- with the same deficiency doe...

    Authors: Xiaoyun Liu, Yan Jiao, Yanhong Cao, Nan Deng, Yonghui Ma, Karen A. Hasty, Andrew Kang, Hong Chen, John M. Stuart and Weikuan Gu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:25

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins present antigenic peptides for immune surveillance and play critical roles in nervous system development and plasticity. Most MHCI are transmembrane pro...

    Authors: Karla K. Frietze, Adlai L. Pappy II, Jack W. Melson, Emily E. O’Driscoll, Carolyn M. Tyler, David H. Perlman and Lisa M. Boulanger

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:24

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered autologous T-cells is becoming a successful therapy for cancer. The avidity of the engineered T-cells is of crucial importance for therapy success. We have in the pa...

    Authors: Victoria Hillerdal, Vanessa F. Boura, Hanna Björkelund, Karl Andersson and Magnus Essand

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:23

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Mast cells are hematopoietically derived cells that play a role in inflammatory processes such as allergy, as well as in the immune response against pathogens by the selective and rapid release of preformed an...

    Authors: Valéria Cintra Barbosa-Lorenzi, Nerry Tatiana Cecilio, Patricia Andressa de Almeida Buranello, Maria Cristina Pranchevicius, Maria Helena S. Goldman, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Maria Célia Jamur and Constance Oliver

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:22

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 modulates porcine mononuclear phagocytes from Peyer’s patches (PPMPs) and induces a differential production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to Toll-l...

    Authors: Kohichiro Tsukida, Takuya Takahashi, Hikaru Iida, Paulraj Kanmani, Yoshihito Suda, Tomonori Nochi, Shuichi Ohwada, Hisashi Aso, Sou Ohkawara, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Tadao Saito, Julio Villena and Haruki Kitazawa

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:21

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Children are prone to get infections, especially in the respiratory system and the gut mainly because their immune system is immature. T cells significantly contribute to the prevention of infections, and diff...

    Authors: Erxia Shen, Mengjie Wang, Hairui Xie, Ruqiong Zou, Qiwen Lin, Lili lai, Fujun Li, Zhimei Liang, Yanran Xu and Maohua Zhou

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:20

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Inappropriate activation of T lymphocytes plays an important role in perinatal complications. However, data on T lymphocyte activation markers of preterm infants is scarce. We investigated the association betw...

    Authors: Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, Tivadar Tulassay and Barna Vásárhelyi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:19

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  18. Content type: Database

    Promiscuous T-cell epitopes that can be presented by multiple human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are prime targets for vaccine and immunotherapy development because they are effective in a high proportion of the ...

    Authors: Shufeng Wang, Ling Guo, Dong Liu, Wei Liu and Yuzhang Wu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:17

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Humanized mouse models are an increasingly popular preclinical model to study the human immune response in a biological system. There are a variety of protocols to generate these mice, each differing in the st...

    Authors: Crystal Dykstra, Amanda J. Lee, Evan J. Lusty, Mira M. Shenouda, Mahsa Shafai, Fatemeh Vahedi, Marianne V. Chew, Stephen Collins and Ali A. Ashkar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:18

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Serglycin proteoglycans are essential for maturation of secretory granules and for the correct granular storage of cationic proteases in hematopoietic cells, e.g. mast cells. However, little is known about the...

    Authors: Ananya Roy, Osama Sawesi, Ulrika Pettersson, Anders Dagälv, Lena Kjellén, Anna Lundén and Magnus Åbrink

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Previous evidence suggested that the differentiation of Lin-CD45RA-DC precursors were prior to plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) within ovarian cancer microenvironment. How...

    Authors: Xue-qian Qian, Li-li Chen, Qi Cheng, Yang Tian, Xiao-feng Luo and Xiao-yun Wan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:14

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in t...

    Authors: Ruth Forman, Michael Bramhall, Larisa Logunova, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M. Cruickshank and Kathryn J. Else

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:12

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  23. Content type: Methodology article

    Immunologists often measure several correlated immunological markers, such as concentrations of different cytokines produced by different immune cells and/or measured under different conditions, to draw insigh...

    Authors: Bernd Genser, Joachim E. Fischer, Camila A. Figueiredo, Neuza Alcântara-Neves, Mauricio L. Barreto, Philip J. Cooper, Leila D. Amorim, Marcus D. Saemann, Thomas Weichhart and Laura C. Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:11

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  24. Content type: Research article

    In genetically modified (GM) crops there is a risk that the inserted genes may introduce new allergens and/or adjuvants into the food and feed chain. The MON810 maize, expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab toxin,...

    Authors: Monica Andreassen, Thomas Bøhn, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark, Johanna Bodin, Terje Traavik, Martinus Løvik and Unni Cecilie Nygaard

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:10

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors used to control innate immune responses such as proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. Trem genes be...

    Authors: Jun Kasamatsu, Mengyao Deng, Masahiro Azuma, Kenji Funami, Hiroaki Shime, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Masanori Kasahara and Tsukasa Seya

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:9

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to mo...

    Authors: Julia A. Najera, Eduardo A. Bustamante, Nikki Bortell, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Timothy Ravasi and Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:7

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is a common and essential practice in conducting research. There are different reports in the literature as to whether cryopreserved PBMCs need to...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Norma Diaz, Joseph Adelsberger, Xueyuan Zhou, Randy Stevens, Adam Rupert, Julia A. Metcalf, Mike Baseler, Christine Barbon, Tomozumi Imamichi, Richard Lempicki and Louis M. Cosentino

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:6

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence indicates that in addition to the T-cell receptor, microclustering is an important mechanism for the activation of the B-cell receptor and the mast cell Fcε-receptor. In macrophages and neutrop...

    Authors: Jia Lin, Svetlana Kurilova, Brandon L. Scott, Elizabeth Bosworth, Bradley E. Iverson, Elizabeth M. Bailey and Adam D. Hoppe

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:5

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to exp...

    Authors: Lindsey Russell, Gordon Broderick, Renee Taylor, Henrique Fernandes, Jeanna Harvey, Zachary Barnes, AnneLiese Smylie, Fanny Collado, Elizabeth G. Balbin, Ben Z. Katz, Nancy G. Klimas and Mary Ann Fletcher

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:3

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major causative bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, possesses a thick polysaccharide capsule. Host defense against this bacterium is mediate...

    Authors: Yukiko Akahori, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Masahiko Toyama, Ikumi Matsumoto, Anna Miyahara, Tong Zong, Keiko Ishii, Yuki Kinjo, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shinobu Saijo, Yoichiro Iwakura and Kazuyoshi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2016 17:1

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) or eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), or both, with asthma precede the onset of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) in half of all EGPA patients. It is not...

    Authors: Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Takahiro Tsuburai, Satoshi Sugano, Yoko Nakamura, Takuya Shimoda, Shunpei Tamama, Ken Adachi, Ayako Horita, Ikuo Saito and Hiroshi Saito

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:75

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  32. Content type: Review

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells known to modulate the immune system and to promote hematopoiesis. These dual effects make MSCs attractive for use as cellular therapy in hemato...

    Authors: Elizabeth O. Stenger, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti and Jacques Galipeau

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:74

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected patients exhibit systemic inflammation, early onset of age-related diseases, and features of immunosenescence. The role of inflammation in the devel...

    Authors: Juliette Tavenier, Anne Langkilde, Thomas Huneck Haupt, Jens Henrik Henriksen, Frank Krieger Jensen, Janne Petersen and Ove Andersen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:72

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  34. Content type: Research article

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for the development and function of neutrophils. miR-130a is highly expressed during early neutrophil development and regulates target proteins important for this process. miRN...

    Authors: Corinna Cavan Pedersen, Jan Christian Refsgaard, Ole Østergaard, Lars Juhl Jensen, Niels Henrik Helweg Heegaard, Niels Borregaard and Jack Bernard Cowland

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:70

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  35. Content type: Research article

    To initiate mucosal immune responses, antigens in the intestinal lumen must be transported into gut-associated lymphoid tissue through M cells. Recently, it has been increasingly recognized that receptor activ...

    Authors: Jeong-In Kim, Tae-Eun Park, Sushila Maharjan, Hui-Shan Li, Ho-Bin Lee, In-Seon Kim, Dachuan Piao, Jun-Yeong Lee, Chong-Su Cho, Jin-Duck Bok, Zhong-Shan Hong, Sang-Kee Kang and Yun-Jaie Choi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:71

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Galectin-3 is known to be a lectin that plays an important role in inflammatory processes, acting as pro-inflammatory mediator in activation and migration of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as in the phag...

    Authors: Camila Brand, Thayse Pinheiro da Costa, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Camila Maria Longo Machado, Leonardo Rodrigues Andrade, Roger Chammas, Felipe Leite de Oliveira and Márcia Cury El-Cheikh

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:68

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis represent a complex interaction between the skin and infiltrating immune cells, resulting in damage to the skin barrier and increased inflamma...

    Authors: Pauline Muscat, Karessa Mercado, Kathryn Payne, Hardip Chahal and Graham Jones

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:69

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) modulates host immune response, mainly T cell responses for its own survival leading to disease or latent infection. The molecules and mech...

    Authors: Bhawna Sharma, Rajni Upadhyay, Bhavyata Dua, Naim Akhtar Khan, Vishwa Mohan Katoch, Bharat Bajaj and Beenu Joshi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:67

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  39. Content type: Research article

    CD1d is a widely expressed lipid antigen presenting molecule required for CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell development. Elevated CD1d expression is detected in CD5+ IL10-producing B cells, c...

    Authors: Victoria L. Palmer, Vincent K. Nganga, Mary E. Rothermund, Greg A. Perry and Patrick C. Swanson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:66

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) usually mount a modest T cell response against HBV epitopes. In order to determine immunogenic epitopes of HBV recognized by HBV-specific T cells, previo...

    Authors: Nanna-Sophie Brinck-Jensen, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Peter Derek Christian Leutscher, Christian Erikstrup and Eskild Petersen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:65

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with the massive infiltration of neutrophils. Although the initial infiltration of neutrophils is beneficial for killing bacteria, it is presume...

    Authors: Sumika Tokieda, Marie Komori, Toshifumi Ishiguro, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kazuhiko Takahara and Kayo Inaba

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:64

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Requisites for an efficacious tuberculosis (TB) vaccine are a minimal genomic diversity among infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for the selected antigen, and the capability to induce robust T-cell res...

    Authors: Marie-Cécile Mortier, Erik Jongert, Pascal Mettens and Jean-Louis Ruelle

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:63

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells have been implicated in lung inflammation in humans and also shown to be a key cell type in inducing allergic lung inflammation in mouse models. iNKT cells differentiate...

    Authors: Rosa Berga-Bolaños, Archna Sharma, Farrah C. Steinke, Kalyani Pyaram, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Dil A. Sultana, Jessie X. Fang, Cheong-Hee Chang, Hai-Hui Xue, Nicola M. Heller and Jyoti Misra Sen

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:62

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies have focused on the significant cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and gamma-delta (γδ) T cells in tumor cells. Nevertheless, the therapeutic feature...

    Authors: Chao Niu, Haofan Jin, Min Li, Jianting Xu, Dongsheng Xu, Jifan Hu, Hua He, Wei Li and Jiuwei Cui

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2015 16:61

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